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comm 150 test 2

terms - ch.5,10,11,12,15

Culture shock The psychological discomfort of adjusting to a new cultural situation
Intercultural communication Interaction between people whose cultural assumptions are distinct enough to alter the communication event
Dominant culture The attitudes, values, beliefs and customs that the majority of people in a society hold in common
Co-cultures Groups of people living within a dominant culture but exhibiting communication that is sufficiently different to distinguish them from the dominant culture
Ethnicity A classification of people based on combinations of shared characteristics such as nationality, geographic origin, language, religion , ancestral customs and tradition
Religion A system of beliefs shared by a group with objects for devotion, rituals for worship and a code of ethics
Social class An indicator of a person’s position in a social hierarchy, as determined by income, education, occupation and social habits
Individualistic culture Emphasizes personal rights and responsibilities, privacy, voicing one’s opinion, freedom, innovation and self expression
Collectivist culture Emphasizes community, collaboration, shared interest, harmony, the public good, and avoiding embarrassment
Low uncertainty avoidance cultures Cultures characterized by greater acceptance of and less need to control, unpredictable people, relationships or events
High uncertainty avoidance cultures Cultures characterized by a low tolerance for, and a high need to control, unpredictable people, relationships or events
High power distance The cultural belief that inequalities in power, status, and rank are “natural” and that these differences should be acknowledged and accentuated
Low power distance The cultural belief that inequalities in power, status, and rank should be underplayed and muted
Masculine culture A culture in which people are expected to adhere to traditional sex roles
Feminine culture A culture in which people, regardless of sex, are expected to assume a variety of roles based on the circumstances and their own choices
Ethnocentrism The belief that one’s own culture is superior to others
Altruism A display of genuine and unselfish concern for the welfare of others
Egocentricity A selfish interest in one’s own needs, to the exclusion of everything else
Work group A collection of three or more people who must interact and influence each other to solve problems and to accomplish a common purpose
Group goal A future state of affairs desired by enough members of the group to motivate the group to work toward its achievement
Specific goal A precisely stated, measurable, and behavioral goal
Consistent goals Complementary goals: achieving one goal does not prevent the achievement of another
Challenging goals Goals that require hard work and team effort; they motivate group members to do things beyond what they might normally accomplish
Acceptable goals Goals to which members feel personally committed.
Homogeneous group Group in which members have a great deal of similarity
Heterogeneous group Group in which various demographics, levels of knowledge, attitudes, and interests are represented
Cohesiveness The degree of attraction members have to each other and to the group’s goal
Team building activities Activities designed to help the group work better together
Norms Expectations for the way group members will behave while in the group
Ground rules Prescribed behaviors designed to help the group meet its goals and conduct its conversations
Synergy A commonality of purpose and a complementariness of each other’s efforts that produces a group outcome greater than an individual outcome
Face-to-face meeting A meeting in which all members come together in one physical location to make a decision or solve a problem
Virtual meeting A meeting in which people in various locations use technology to work together on a decision or problem
Forming The initial stage of group development during which people come to feel valued and accepted so that they identify with the group
Storming The stage of group development during which the group clarifies its goals and determines the roles each member will have in the group power structure
Groupthink A deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment that results from in-group pressure
Norming The stage of group development during which the group solidifies its rules for behavior, especially those that relate to how conflict will be managed
Performing The stage of group development when the skills, knowledge and abilities of all members combined to overcome obstacles and meet goals successfully
Adjourning The stage of group development in which members assign meaning to what they have done and determine how to end or maintain interpersonal relations they have developed
Question of fact Questions concerned with discovering what is true or to what extent something is true
Questions of value Questions that concern subjective judgments of what is right, moral , good or just
Questions of policy Questions that concern what courses of action should be taken or what rules should be adopted to solve a problem
Brainstorming An uncritical, non-evaluative process of generating associated ideas
Decision making The process of choosing among alternatives
Role A specific pattern of behavior that one group member performs based on the expectations of other members
Task-related roles Specific patterns of behavior that directly help the group accomplish its goals
Initiator A group member who gets the discussion started or moves it in a new direction
Information or opinion giver A group member who provides content for the discussion
Information or opinion seeker A group member who probes others for their factual ideas and opinions
Analyzer A group member who probes the content, reasoning, and evidence of members during discussions
Orienter A group member who indicates to the group that it is off track or summaries point s of agreement and disagreement among members
Maintenance roles Patterns of behavior that help the group develop and maintain good member relationships, group cohesiveness, and effective levels of conflict
Gatekeeper A group member who ensures that everyone has an opportunity to speak and be heard
Encourager A group member who provides support for the contributions of the team members
Harmonizer A group member who helps the group relieve tension and manage conflict
Self-centered roles Patterns of behavior that focus attention on individuals’ needs and goals at the expense of the group
Aggressor A group member who seeks to enhance his or her own status by criticizing almost everything or blaming others when things get rough and by deflating the ego or status of others
Withdrawer A group member who meets his or her own goals at the expense of group goals by not participating in the discussion or the work of the group
Blocker A group member who routinely rejects others’ views and stubbornly disagrees with emerging group decisions
Formal leader An assigned, appointed or elected leader who is given legitimate power to influence others
Informal leader Members of the group whose authority to influence stems from the power they gain through their interactions in the group
Joker a group member who attempts to draw attention to himself or herself by clowning, mimicking, or generally making a joke of everything
Leadership is a process of influencing members to accomplish group goals
intercultural empathy imaginatively placing yourself in the dissimilar other person's cultural world to attempt to experience what he or she is experiencing
flexibility the ability to adjust your communication to fit the other person and the situation
Subject A broad area of knowledge
Topic Some specific aspect of a subject
Brainstorming An uncritical, non-evaluative process of generating associated ideas
Audience analysis The study of the intended audience for your speech
Audience adaptation The active process of developing a strategy for tailoring your information to the specific speech audience
Survey A questionnaire designed to gather information from people
Setting The occasion and location for your speech
General speech goal The intent of your speech
Specific speech goal A single statement of the exact response the speaker wants from the audience
Secondary research The process of locating information about your topic that has been discovered by other people
Periodicals Magazines and journals that appear at fixed intervals
Primary research The process of conducting your own study to acquire information for your speech
Examples Specific instances that illustrate or explain a general factual statement
Expert opinions Interpretations and judgments made by authorities in a particular subject area
Expert A person who has mastered a specific subject, usually through long-term study
Anecdotes Brief, often amusing stories
Narratives Accounts, personal experiences, tales, or lengthier stories
Comparisons Illuminate a point by showing similarities
Contrasts Highlight differences
Plagiarism The unethical act of representing a published author’s work as your own
Factual statements statements that can be verified
Statistics numerical facts
Public speaking apprehension A type of communication anxiety (or nervousness), is the level of fear you experience when anticipating or actually speaking to an audience
Anticipation reaction The level of anxiety you experience prior to giving the speech, including the nervousness you feel while preparing and waiting to speak
Confrontation reaction The surge in your anxiety level that you feel as you begin your speech
Adaptation reaction The gradual decline of your anxiety level that begins about one minute into the presentation and results in your anxiety level declining to its pre-speaking level in about five minutes
Visualization A method that reduces apprehension by helping you develop a mental picture of yourself giving a masterful speech
Systematic desensitization A method that reduces apprehension by gradually having you visualize increasingly more frightening events
Public speaking skills training The systematic teaching of the skills associated with the processes involved in preparing and delivering an effective public speech, with the intention of improving speaking competence and thereby reducing public speaking apprehension.
Pitch The scaled highness or lowness of the sound a voice makes
Volume The degree of loudness of the tone you make as you normally exhale, your diaphragm relaxes, and air is expelled through the trachea
Rate The speed at which you talk
Quality The tone, timbre, or sound of your voice
Articulation Using the tongue, palate, teeth, jaw movement, and lips to shape vocalized sounds that combine to produce a word
Pronunciation The form and accent of various syllables of a word
Accent The articulation, inflection, tone, and speech habits, typical of the natives of a country, a region, or even a state or city
Facial expression Eye and mouth movement
Gestures Movement of your hands, arms and fingers that describe and emphasize what you are saying
Movement Motion of the entire body
Posture The position or bearing of the body
Poise Refers to assurance of manner
Conversational style An informal style of presenting a speech so that your audience feels you are talking with them, not at them
Enthusiasm Excitement or passion about your speech
Vocal expressiveness The contrasts in pitch, volume, rate, and quality that affect the meaning an audience gets from the sentences you speak
Emphasis Giving different shades of expressiveness to words
Monotone A voice in which the pitch, volume, and rate remain constant with no word, idea, or sentence differing significantly from any other
Spontaneity A naturalness that seems unrehearsed or memorized
Fluency Speech that flows easily, without hesitations and vocal interferences
Eye contact Looking directly at the people with whom you are speaking
Impromptu speeches Speeches that are delivered with only seconds or minutes of advance notice for preparation and usually presented without referring to notes of any kind
Scripted speeches Those that are prepared by creating a complete written manuscript and delivered by rote memory or by reading a written copy
Extemporaneous speeches Speeches that are researched and planned ahead of time, although the exact wording is not scripted and will vary from presentation to presentation
Rehearsing Practicing the presentation of your speech aloud
Speech notes Word or phrased outlines of your speech
Created by: mjbarne