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Chapter 18

The Reproductive System

The hormone released by the area of the brain known as the hypothalamus beginning at the onset of sexual maturity in both males & females is: the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
GnRH is needed for: both sexual maturity and normal reproduction
The Female Reproductive System consists of: 2 ovaries, 2 fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the vagina
The menstrual cycle is made up of 2 states of being: ovulation & menstruation.
An ovary normally matures & releases an egg (ovulation): about 11 to 17 days before the woman's next menstrual period or approximately once every 28 to 30 days.
The egg is released from: the ovary and into a fallopian tube & swept by tiny hairlike cells (cilia) and smooth muscle action into the uterus.
Females are born with about_________ oocytes or eggs: 2 million
By the time puberty, only about ______ eggs remain: 400,000
Estradiol: is the most abundant & most active of the estrogens.
The main function of estradiol: to stimulate the developement of the uterine lining and the mammary glands, readying the body for pregnancy.
The estrogens are known as: Feminizing Hormones.
___________is the most potent form of estrogen in premenopausal women. Estradiol
______is a weaker estrogen & is formed when estradiol & estrone are metabolized. Estriol
Progesterone literally means_____? Hormone for life.
Estrogen has little effect if___? The female reproductive cycle is considered as a 28 day cycle(the average age), during the first 12days.
A woman is most fertile ____ Around the time that she is ovulating.
Some women can tell they are ovulating by: Watching for changes in vaginal discharge or body temperature. They also feel pain when the egg is released.
PMS stands for? Premenstrual Syndrome
PMS occurs____ During the phase before the phase before the periods, which most women describe as uncomfortable.
There are several types of chemical contraceptives: Estrogen & Progesterone combinations and progesterone only.
There are 2 main mechanisms of action of the contraceptives: Prefertilization & Post Fertilization mechanisms
Prefertilization Mechanisms Include: Prevent ovulation & to thicken cervical mucus to provide a barrier to sperm reducing likelihood of implantation
Post Fertilization Mechanisms Include: Change in the lining of the uterus to block implantation of the embryo.
How do you define conception? The conjoining of an egg & sperm.
POPs is? Contraceptives used to prevent pregnancy are also called minipills. (birth-control)
Drugs that may interfere with the active ingredients of birth-control agents are___ Anti-biotics, Anti-fungal, Anti-epileptic, & Anti-convulsant drugs.
Spermicides are found in various forms such as: Creams, Foams, Gels, Suppositories, & Vaginal Film.
Vaginal filmstrips are good for ____ hour(s) after insertion. 1
_____are best for effective protection from transmission of bacterial & viral infections. Latex Condoms
The size of the diaphragm is determined by: A measurement of the vagina taken by the provider to securely fit.
Diaphragms must be worn for____ hours after intercourse? 6
Intrauterine Devices (IUD) are__? Small, flexible devices composed of metal and/or plastic.
A sexually transmitted disease is (STD)___ a disease caused by a pathogen that is spread from person to person primarily through sexual contact.
STDs occur most commonly in___ Sexually active teenagers & young adults.
During the fourth or fifth month of gestation___ is secreted by the pituitary gland Prolactin
Oxytocin which is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland causes___ labor contractions.
Created by: brittany123