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THC4 Ethics-I

Moral Philosophy, Ethics, and the Early History of Moral Thought

Is the study of moral values and conduct of an individual, group or culture. Ethics
can be as the right and wrong of an action, decision or way of living. Morality
Value concepts can be discerned from commercial documents, law codes, wisdom sayings, hero stories and myths. Mesopotamia
described the proper conduct needed for a happy afterlife; some historians see it as a precursor to the Ten Commandments. Egyptian "Book of the Dead"
established standards of behavior and listed crimes and their various punishments. Hammurabi's Code
established standards of behavior and listed crimes and their various punishments Legend of Gilgamesh
comprises the first five books of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh); it provides a legal and theological framework for life and an ethical system which consists of the Ten Commandments and other rules, such as 613 mitzvot The Hebrew Torah
Earliest known writings about heroes who exemplified virtues most admired. Hero Stories
determined that although all things looked different in appearance, He deduced that this "something" was water. Everything that existed is "caused" by water, he believed, which allowed him to form the idea "that Many are related by the One." Thales
who was known as the ‘laughing philosopher’ because of his emphasis on the value of "cheerfulness," believed that happiness stemmed from an even temperament and from a life of moderation. Democritus
believed that knowledge and virtue are one; justice cannot mean harming others; striving for good is the condition of all humans and the soul is a person’s conscious personality. Socrates
(1) Knowledge is virtue; (2) Morality is the matter of true knowledge Socratic method
Consistant with self interest, must be rational Right action
saw morality as a quest to live by Virtues (Courage; Justice; Temperance; Wisdom) in an attempt to recapture the Forms, the ideal essences of objects or things. Plato
Plato considers that most people cannot see the world as it is. We only see the shadows of the world, images and shapes that are not really the world at all. The cave
Ethics founded on the Golden Mean Artistotle
This Greek school of philosophy maintained that the greatest good comes from the pursuit of pleasure. Epicurus
is an approach to ethics which emphasizes the character of the moral agent, rather than rules or consequences, as the key element of ethical thinking. Virtue Ethics
written by Plato. Wisdom, temperance, courage and justice. The cardinal Virtues
Hebrews Scripture, Egyptian School Text, Book of the Dead, and Legend of Gilgamesh. Can you Identify the sources of the earliest known ethical writings in human history?
Do you recognize the key contributions of Greek philosophy to ethical thought?
Happiness (eudaimonia), not identical with pleasure (hedone), Can you state the key elements in Aristotle's ethical theory?
inadequate, as not giving us any idea of what to do or how to conduct ourselves when several important, and conflicting, virtues are involved in a given situation. What advantages and disadvantages can you cite in the use of "virtue" as an ethical standard?
A king trained in moral philosophy. For Plato, a state would be just if it were ruled by:
Courage Justice Temperance Wisdom Plato's four main virtues
Generosity Good Temper Friendship Self respect Honor Shame Pride Truthfulness Aristotles list of virtues
Aristotle's ethics are influenced by his observations of nature, based in part on Plato's theory, and are a refutation of some of Plato's theory. Aristotle's ethics are
The golden mean Aristotle believed human actions should follow
argued for a moral philosophy of relativism (conduct or morals cannot be reduced to concepts or principles; it isn’t possible to know the "true" nature of anything because perceptions differ from person to person), one based on self-interest. Sophist
maintained that that human knowledge was limited and uncertain. Skepticism
valued courage and acceptance of one's role in life Stoicism
believed that salvation could be found in a mystical union with God. Neoplatonism
Stock brokers who "churn" stocks, repeatedly buying & selling stocks to gain personal commission w/out client's best interest in mind. Illegal & Unethical
Selling legal products (like heavily sugared cereal) to minors when their effects may be harmful. Legal & Unethical
Refusing to comply w/ laws that mandate religions or racial discrimination. Illegal & Ethical
Created by: lstreets