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Biochem Midterm

Sept 2009 - March 2010

How many AIDS orphans are there in Africa? 2 Million
How many deaths are caused by tuberculosis each year? 5 Million
How many deaths are caused by Malaria each year? 3 Million
How many deaths are caused by Sleeping Sickness each year? 400,000
What is immunity? The immune system functions to maintain the integrity of the body
Small Lymphocyte Production of antibodies (B Cells) or Cytotoxic and helper functions (T Cells)
Dendritic Cells Activation of T cells initiation of adaptive immune responses
Plasma Cells Fully differentiated form of B cells that secretes antibodies
Mast Cell Expulsion of parasites from body through release of granules containing histamine and other active ingredients
Natural Killer Cell Kills cells infected with certain viruses
Monocyte Circulating precursor cell to a macrophage
Neutrophil Phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms
Macrophage Phagocytosis and killing or microorganisms. Activation or T cells and innitiation or immune responses
Eosinophil Killing of antibody-coated parasites through release of granule contents
Megakaryocyte Platelet formation, wound repair
Basophil Controlling immune responses to parasites
Erythrocyte Oxygen transport
Threats from the outside Bacteria Parasites Viruses Aliens Other human cells
Threats from within Tumours Autoimmunity
Hematopoisis Formation of blood cells
Stem cells (In bone marrow) Rare pluripotent cells capable of self-renewal
Pluripotent A pluripotent cell can create all cell types
Monocytes Short lived in the blood, differentiate to marcrophages & dendritic cells. Become tissue-fixed.
Types of Monocytes Osteoclasts (bones) Glial Cells (brain) Kuppfer Cells (liver) Alverlar macrophages (lung)
Antigen Presenting Cells (ACP) Ingest microbes, destroy, digest. Process antigen, present antigen
APC's present the antigen in the secondary lymphoid organs such as... Lymph nodes Spleen Adenoids/Tonsils Appendix Peyers Patches
Type A can receive Type A and Type O
Type B can receive Type B and Type O
Type O can receive Type O only (universal donor)
Type AB can receive Type A, B and O (universal recipient)
Our circulation works at? high pressure
Fluid leaks from the capillaries into? Spaces surrounding tissues
Primary Lymphoid Organs Bone marrow and Thymus
Where do all lymphoid cells originate? Bone Marrow
Where to T lymphocytes mature? Thymus
Act as filters and catch anything that shouldn't be there Secondary Lymphoid Organs
Secondary Lymphoid Organs Lymph Nodes Spleen Peyer's Patches Appendix Tonsils
Humoral Immunity Antibodies
Extracellular Organisms Bacteria & Viruses/Parasites
Cell Mediated Immune Response (Natural killer cells, T killer cells, macrophages) 1. Tumor & 2. Virus infected cells/parasite-infected cells
Antigen named after it's discovery in the Rhesus monkey, Also found in humans Rh Factor
Rh Factor - First Pregnancy (Rh- female, Rh+ male) No problem
Rh factor - Second Pregnancy (Rh- female, Rh+ male) Big problem
Rh Factor (What happens with the antibodies?) Antibodies made by mother against erythrocytes of the child, recognize the Rh antigen and lyse the erythrocytes of the next developing fetus
Blood typing of the parents and administration of the anti-Rh antibodies to remove antigen (red cells) from mother
Proteins secreted by stimulated B lymphocytes (plasma cells). Different kinds have different functions Antibodies (ABS)
Different kids of antibodies IgM, IgD, IgG, IgA, IgE
People with blood type A have __ antigens on the erythrocyte surfaces A
People with blood type B have __ antigens on the erythrocyte surfaces B
People with blood type AB have __ antigens on the erythrocyte surfaces Both
People with blood type O have __ antigens on the erythrocyte surfaces Neither
Type A: Tolerant of "A" antigens but have antibodies to "B", Therefore a person of Type A... Cannot accept blood from type B or AB donor
We make immune response to arising cancer cells - these are eliminated from the body Immunosurveillance
Immunosurveillance First line of defense Macrophages and Natural Killer (NK) cells
Immunosurveillance Second line of defense T Cytotoxic lymphocytes (T killer cells)
Develop when transformed cells "sneak through" the immune system Tumors
Cells of colon cancers and in embryos (CEA) Carcinoembryonic Antigen
Liver Cancers (AFP) Alpha-fetoprotein
Ca 27-29 Breast Cancers
Ca 125 Ovarian Cancer
Can be caused by a normal response to a pathogen that has antigens with the same structure as self molecules Autoimmunity
Cause rheumatic fever and sometimes damages heart muscle due to anti-strep antibodies Streptococcal
Breakdown or tolerance to self molecules True Autoimmunity
Autoimmunity results as a consequence of a normal immune response to an infection and the antibodies or cells accidentally react with self molecules A Misnomer
10x higher frequency in females than males Antibodies are made to platelets, other cells, histones, DNA Estrogen - Hormonally linked expressions to the disease Systemic Lupus Erythmatosis (SLE)
T killer cells attack myelin protein (myelin sheath, insulation to nerves) Multiple Sclerosis
- Frequent in females 40-60 years old - Body makes rheumatoid factor, IgM anti-IgG - Complexes deposit in joints causing inflammation. Like having bits of glass in your joints. Rheumatoid Arthritis
Surgical procedures developed by 1900. Viennese surgeon observed that he could surgically remove a kidney and put it back into the same animal in a procedure called _________? Transplantation
Transplant from one area of a patient to another Autograft
Transplant between genetically identical people Isograft
Transplant between members of the same species Allograft
Transplant between different species Xenograft
Working with burn patients in WW2 noticed that autografts were accepted but allografts were not and that a 2nd allograft from the same donor was rejected faster Peter Medawar
Humans are composed of dozens of different types of tissues, each composed of discrete units called? Cells
About ___ different functional types of cells in humans 200
Two types of Cells Prokaryote & Eukaryote
- Complex intracellular structure - Contains organelles (nucleus, mitochondria) Eukaryote
Relatively simple cell No nucleus Eg. Bacteria Prokaryote
Simple Unicellular organisms may be _______ Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic
Complex multicellular organisms may be _____ Only Eukaryotes
Estimated total number of cells in human body?
Organized, highly condensed (supercoiled) unit of DNA. Usually single copy in bacteria (haploid) Prokaryotic Nucleoid
The genome is organized as _______ Chromosomes
Human cells contain __ pairs of chromosomes (diploid) 23
These people solved the structure of DNA James Watson & Francis Crick
These people prove that genes are composed of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty and Colin MacLeod
Each strand or DNA is made of a string of ______ Nucleotides
Each _______ is composed of a sugar-phosphate backbone and a Base Nucleotide
4 Different Types of Bases In DNA Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine, Thymine
2 DNA strands are held together by weak _______ _____ Hydrogen Bonds
First Objective of the Human Genome Project Determine the sequence of the 4 bases in human DNA
3 Stages of Human Clinical Trials Stage 1: Is drug safe for humans? Stage 2: Does drug work for it's intended purpose? Stage 3: How does new drug compare with other available treatments?
Experiment where subjects are not informed of type of treatment they receive Blind Experiment
Experiment where neither subject or experimenter is informed of treatment type Double Blind
Diverse group of food supplements claimed to have medical benifits Neutraceuticals
Based on genomic regions containing Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) DNA Fingerprinting
Recognition sites for restriction enzymes Cleavage Sites
Performed on a rectangular slab of gel composed of aragose, a carbohydrate extracted from kelp Aragose Gel Electrophoresis
During Aragose Gel Electrophoresis, DNA molecules always move towards the _______ Anode +
All _________ carry complete genome Somatic Cells
One of the 2 DNA strands used as template for synthesis of complimentary strand of mRNA Transcription
Information on mRNA is decoded into amino acid sequence of a protein on ribosomes Translation
Chain of nucleotides sythesized by ___ _______ from template strand of DNA RNA Polymerase
Single stranded Ribose instead of deoxyribose Thymine replaced by uracil mRNA
Each sequence of 3 bases in RNA Codon
A set of 64 three-letter combinations called “codons” used to decode genes into proteins The Genetic Code
Two common applications of gene chips 1. DNA-based diagnostic tests 2. Study of gene expression patterns in cells
Unique enzyme used to synthesize cDNA from mRNA template Reverse Transcriptase
cDNA labeled by using nucleotides tagged with __________? Fluorescent Dye
Gene Chip: Colourless means? Unexpressed genes
Gene Chip: Coloured spots mean? Expressed genes
Microarray analysis: What colour are the genes expressed only in normal cells? Green
Microarray analysis: What colour are the genes expressed only in cancer cells? Red
Microarray analysis: What colour are the genes unexpressed in normal and cancer cells? No colour
Replacing a bad gene with a good one from a normal person to cure problem Gene Therapy
Simplest viruses composed of __________ surrounding genome Protein coats
Professional cell break-in artists Cell dependent Professional Gene couriers (Leave genes at every crime scene) Viruses
Genes usually incorporated into host chromosome at Very low efficiency
Used as gene delivery tools Retroviruses
Inside living body; Cells genetically modified directly in patient In Vivo
Outside living body; Appropriate cells taken from patient, genetically modified, and then returned to patient Ex Vivo
First human disease to be successfully treated by gene therapy Single gene defect Severe Combined ImmunoDeficiency (SCID)
Cells involved in immunity are derived from? Bone Marrow Stem Cells
Detects mutations that cause a disease or may predispose an individual to a disease DNA Test
Bonds between DNA strands are broken and separated by heating Denaturation
2 DNA strands are cooled and allowed to bond with cooling Hybridization or Annealing
Most common fatal genetic disease in north american Caucasians Caused by mutations in single gene Cystic Fibrosis
CF mutations are _______ meaning both parents must carry one mutant gene to pass disease to children Recessive
Late onset, involves progressive destruction of tissue in nervous system resulting in loss of motor and cognitive function Huntington's Disease
HD mutation is ________ meaning only one parent needs to have one copy of the gene Dominant
HD gene encodes protein known as? Huntingtin
Mutant huntingtin undergoes _______ but normal huntingtin does noe cleavage
Areas containing a single base variation in DNA sequence SNP
Stages of embryonic development 1. Sperm fertilizes egg 2. 2-Cell stage 3. 4 cell stage 4. Blastocyst stage
Genetically altered Transgenic
Method for creating genetically altered mice 1. Modified cloned gene injected into nucleus of fertilized egg 2. Gene spliced into chromosome of embryo at low frequency 3. Resulting "transgenic embryo" implanted into surrogate mother.
Two common ways to identify function of disease gene in animals 1. Mutate cloned gene to mimic sequence of human diseased gene 2. Completely destroy gene in genome (gene knockout)
What are Fibroblasts? Elongated cells
____________ are the only cells that can't be grown in a lab Nervous system cells
People with __________ lack insulin-producing beta cells of pancreas Type 1 diabetes
_______ regulates blood sugar metabolism Insulin
Type 1 diabetes is an _____________ where immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells Autoimmune
Discovered insulin Frederick Banting and Charles Best
Produced purified insulin from cows pancreas Bertram Collip
Problems with porcine and bovine insulin? - Low yields - Hard to purify, contaminants caused allergic reactions
First genetically engineered medication to be licensed for human use Recombinant Human Insulin
A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. The 0.1% difference in individuals Polymorphism
A region that can have more than one form or sequence Polymorphic Region
Occur 1 in every 100-300 bases, mostly in junk with no known effect SNP's
Branch of the human genome project. Objective: Assemble a catalog of all human SNP's International HapMap Project
Differentiate into different cell types (brain, skin nerve) Diploid Somatic Cells
Carry 2 copies of each chromosome Diploid Cells
Sperm of Ova Haploid Cells Germ (Reproductive) Cells
Carry single copies of each chromosome Haploid Cells
Involves dissecting individual intact genes from genome Cloning Genes
Protein that carries out a chemical reaction Enzyme
A large molecule made up of smaller building blocks (monomers) Polymer
Cut DNA at specific sequences of bases, found in bacteria Restriction Nucleases
Gene is inserted into a ________ to create recombinant DNA Vector
Example of a vector Plasmid
A system for naming organisms. First name: Genus, Second: Species. Binomial Nomenclature
Genes from different organisms that share similar function Homologs
Finding homologs by computer-assisted identification of similar sequences on genomes of different organisms Comparative Genomics
Possess human homologs Model organisms
99% of mouse and human genes are homologs
A _______ is an excellent model organism to study humans Mouse
About 60% of genes involved in roughly 300 human diseases also occur in? Fruit flies
Easy to grow in lab Unicellular eukatyote Bakers Yeast
Fast life cycle: 6 Weeks from germination to seed. Allows one to perform plant genetic experiments quickly Mustard Weed
Cannot be cultured in lab Syphilis
Polymer composed of monomers called amino acids Protein
__ different amino acids occur in proteins 20
Sequence of amino acids determines _____ of protein Shape
Shape of Protein, determines it's function Conformation
All proteins assume their shapes through process known as? Folding
Each sequence of 3 bases is a? Gene
There are about ______ genes 25,000
2 Forms of Junk DNA 1. Duplications 2. Repetitions
The genetic switches that regulate the expression of genes Junk DNA
Created by: courterpounder