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MSA Review A-C

MSA Vocabulary Review words A-C

Abiotic: Nonliving features of an ecosystem such as climate, light, soil chemistry, and water availability.
Abyssal plain: Flat areas on the ocean floor formed by the deposition of sediment.
Acceleration: The change that occurs in an object's speed or direction in a certain period of time.
Acid: A substance that donates hydrogen ions. Any compound that produces hydrogen ions (H+) in water thereby reducing the pH of water to a value below 7.
Adaptation: A characteristic, arising from natural selection, that that improves a population's chance of survival and reproduction.
Amplitude: The distance from the midpoint to the maximum point (crest) or to the minimum point (trough) of a wave. The distance that a wave rises and falls from its normal rest position.
Anemometer: An instrument used to measure wind speed.
Angle of Incidence: The angle between the normal (perpendicular drawn to surface) and the incident ray.
Angle of Reflection: The angle between the normal (perpendicular drawn to the surface) and the reflected ray.
Apparent: Appearing real or true based on evidence that may not be valid.
Asexual reproduction: Mode of reproduction in which offspring arise from a single parent and inherit the genes of that parent only.
Asteroid: Enormous rocks or boulders that revolve around the sun, usually between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
Atmosphere: The layers of gases that surround Earth or another planet.
Atom: The smallest part of a substance which can exist and still retain the properties of that substance.
Atomic number: Number of protons in the nucleus of one atom of an element.
Balance: Tool, calibrated in grams, used to measure the mass of an object.
Barometer: An instrument that measures air pressure.
Base: A substance that accepts hydrogen ions. Any compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in water thereby raising the pH of water to a value above 7.
Behavior (animal): A response to external and internal stimuli.
Biome: A large, relatively distinct terrestrial region, encompassing many interacting ecosystems, and characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals, regardless of where it occurs on Earth. A biome is commonly named for its plant cover.
Biotic: Features of the environment of an organism arising from the activities of other living organisms, as distinct from abiotic factors.
Boiling point: The temperature at which a substance in its liquid state changes into a gas state.
Canyon: A deep, narrow valley with steep sides.
Cast: A fossil formed in a rock showing the organism's outward shape. It formed after the organism dissolved and the space in the rock was filled.
Celestial: Pertaining to the sky or visible bodies in the sky.
Cell: The smallest unit of life capable of carrying on life's functions.
Cell respiration: A process by which energy stored in molecules is released within plant and animal cells.
Celsius: A temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is 0° and the boiling point of water is 100°.
Cementation: Process by which sedimentary rock is formed from sediments being glued together by mineral deposits.
Chemical change: A change that results in the formation of a new substance, such as the burning of wood.
Chemical energy: Energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules.
Chemical properties: Properties which cause specific behavior of substances during chemical reactions, such as reacts with oxygen, reacts with acids, reacts with bases.
Chemical reaction: Change that takes place when two or more substances (reactants) interact to form new substances (products).
Chromatography: Process of separating small amounts of substances from mixtures by the rates at which they move through or along a medium.
Classification system: A structured organizer used to determine groups based on similar characteristics.
Cleavage: Property of a mineral in which it breaks along smooth, definite surfaces.
Climate: The average temperature and rainfall for a particular place over hundreds of years.
Comet: Small frozen masses of ice, dust, and gases that travel a definite path through the solar system.
Community: An association of different species living together at the same time in a defined habitat with some degree of mutual dependence. It can be of various sizes from lake sediments to rainforests (Compare with habitat and ecosystem).
Compaction: Process by which sedimentary rock is formed when layers of sediment are compressed by the weight of layers above them.
Competition: The result of a common demand by two or more organisms or types of organisms for limited resources.
Composition: The chemical make up of a given substance.
Compound: A substance in which the atoms of different elements are bonded to one another. It can be broken down into simpler parts only by a chemical change.
Conclusion: 1. The end of a reasoning process involving data, evidence, or observations from an investigation.2. The closing paragraph of a laboratory report including at least the investigative question, the hypothesis, and the explanation of the results.
Condensation: Process in which matter changes from a gaseous state to a liquid state.
Conduct: Allow energy to flow through a material.
Conduction: The transfer of heat energy through a substance or from one substance to another by direct contact of atoms or molecules.
Conductor: A material through which electric current can flow easily.
Consumer: Organism that eats other organisms for food.
Control: A factor in an investigation that is kept the same; the standard used for comparison.
Convection: A method of transferring heat energy by the movement of the heated substance itself.
Convection current: A circular current in a fluid like air, water, or molten rock. The process occurs when the fluid is unevenly heated so that part of the fluid rises, cools, and then sinks producing the circular movement.
Core: The center of Earth or other celestial body.
Crust: The thin rocky outer layer of the Earth (also known as Earth's surface).
Crustal plate: Any of the huge moving segments of the Earth's crust which travel over the Earth's mantle.
Crystal: A solid with a definite shape, formed from a repeating pattern of atoms.
Created by: wknopf