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AP Human Geog-Ag:adp

AP Human Geography:ADP- Agricultural Geography

TermDefinition
agribusiness set of economic/political relationships that organizes food production for commercial purposes.
agriculture the art and science of producing food from the land and tending livestock for the purpose of human consumption.
animal husbandry An agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattles, horses, sheep and goats.
biotechnology a form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other micro organisms for specific purposes.
capital-intensive agriculture form of technology that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods
commercial agriculture economy all agricultural activity generated for the purpose of selling, not necessarily for local consumption
dairying an agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese and butter
domestication the conscious manipulation of plant and animal species by humans in order to sustain themselves
extensive agriculture an agricultural sydtem characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area
feedlots places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; factory farms
fertile crescent area located in the crescent-shaped zone near the south-eastern Mediterranean coast which was once a lush environment and a hearth of domestication and agricultural activity
genetically modified foods foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability, and efficiency.
green revolution the development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe.
hunting and gathering the killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance
industrial revolution the rapid economical changes that occured in agriculture and manufacturing in England in the late 18th century and that rapidly spread to other parts of the developing world
intensive cultivation any kind of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield
labor-intensive agriculture type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to be sucessful
livestock ranching an extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the american west
mechanization in agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technology or machines
mediterranean agriculture an agricultural system practiced in the mediterranean-style climates of western europe, california, and portions of chile and australia, in which diverse specialty crops and a host of nuts, fruits, and vegetables comprise profitable agricultural operation
pastoralism a type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter
pesticides chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals
planned agricultural economy an agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the government controls both agricultural production and distribution
plantation a large, frequently foreign-owned piece of agricultural land devoted to the production of a single export crop
salinization process that occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation. In arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile.
shifting cultivation the use of tropical forest clearings for crop production until their fertility is lost. Plots are then abandoned, and farmers move on to new sites.
slash-and-burn agriculture system of cultivation that usually exists in tropical areas where vegetation is cut close to the ground and then ignited. The fire introduces nutrients into the soil, thereby making it productive for a short period of time
specialty crops crops including items like peanuts and pineapples, which are produced, usually in developing countries for export
subsistence agricultural economy any farmeconomy in which most crops are grown for nearly exclusive family or local consumption
swidden land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash-and-burn method
topsoil loss loss of the top fertile layer of soil is lost through erosion it is a tremendous problem in areas with fragile soils, steep slopes, or torrential seasonal rains
transhumance the movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the summer
urban sprawl the process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land
von Thunen model an agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be closer to the market. Also the converse is true.
Created by: annedpenn on 2006-03-19



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