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AP #2

Abnormal Psychology Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
bulimia nervosa eating disorder involving recurrent episodes of uncontrolled excessive (binge) eating followed by compensatory actions to remove the food (eg. deliberate vomiting, laxative abuse, and excessive exercise)
binge relatively brief episode of uncontrolled, excessive consumption, ususlly of food or alcohol
anorexia nervosa eating disorder characterized by recurrent food refusal, leading to dangerously low body weight
obesity excess body fat resulting in a body mass index (BMI, a ratio of weight to height) of 30 or more
purging techniques in the eating disorder bulimia nervosa, the self-induced vomiting or laxative abuse used to compensate for excessive food ingestion
binge-eating disorder (BED) pattern of eating involving distress0inducing binges not folowed by purging behaviors; being considered as a new DSM diagnostic category
night eating syndrome consuming a third or more of daily food intake after the evening meal and getting out of bed at least once during the night to have a high-calorie snack. in the morning, person is not hungry and does not eat bfast. they do not binge and seldom purge
bariatric surgery surgical approach to extreme obesity, usually accomplished by stapling the stomach to create a small stomach pouch or by bypassing the stomach through gastric bypass surgery
rapid eye movement sleep (REM) periodic intervals of sleep during which the eyesmove rapidly from side to side, and dreams occur, but the body is inactive
dyssomnias problems in getting to sleep or in obtaining sufficient quality sleep
parasomnias abnormal behaviors such as nightmares or sleepwalking that occur during sleep
polysomnographic (PSG) evaluation assessment of sleep disorders in which a client sleeping in the lab is monitored for heart, muscle, respiration, brain wve, and other functions
actigraph small, electronic device that is worn on the wrist like a watchand records body movements. this can be used to record sleep-wake cycles
sleep efficiency (SE) percentage of time actually spent sleeping of the total time spent in bed
microsleeps shrt, seconds-long periods of sleep that occur in people who have been deprived of sleep
primary insomnia difficulty in initiating, maintaining, or gaining from sleep, not related to other medical or psychological problems
hypersomnia abnormally excessive sleep. a person with this condition will fall asleep several times a day
sleep apnea disorder involvig brief periods when breahing ceases during sleep
narcolepsy sleep dirorder involving sudden and irresistable sleep attacks
breathing-related sleep disorders sleep disruption leading to excessive sleepiness or insomnia, caused by a breathing problem such as interrupted (sleep apnea) or labored (hypoventilation) breathing
circadian rhythm sleep disorders sleep distrubances resulting in sleepiness or insomnia, caused by the body's inability to synchronize its sleep patterns with the current pattern of day and night
nightnames frightening and anxiety-provoking dreams occurring during rapid eye movement sleep. the individual recalss the bad dreams and recovers alertness and orientation quickly
sleep terrors episodes of apparent wakening from sleep, accompanied by signs of panic, followed by disorientation and amnesia for the incident. these occur during nonrapid eye movement sleep and so do not involve frightening dreams
sleepwalking parasomnia that involves leaving the bed during nonrapid eye movement sleep
heterosexual behavior sexual activity with members of the opposite gender
homosexual behavior sexual activity with members of the same gender
gender nonconformity boys who behave in feminine ways and girls who behave in masculine ways
sex reassignment surgery surgical procedures to alter a person's physical anatomy to conform to that peron's psychological gender issues
sexual dysfunction sexual disorder in which the client finds it difficult to function adequately while having sex
hypoactive sexual desire disorder apparent lack of interest in sexual activity or fantasy that would not be expected considering the person's age and life situation
sexual aversion disorder extreme and persistent dislike of sexual contact or similar activities
male erectile disorder recurring inaility in some men to attain or maintain adequate peile erection until cmpletion of sexual activity
female sexual arousal disorder recurrent inability in ome women to attain or maintain adequate lubrication and sexual excitement swelling responses until completion of sexual activity
inhibited orgasm inability to achieve orgasm despite adequate sexual desire and arousal; commonly seen in women but relatively rare in men
female orgasmic disorder recurring delay or absense of orgasm in some women following a normal sexual excitement phase, reative to their prior experience and current stiumation. aka inhibited orgasm
male orgasmic disorder recurring delay in or absence of orgasm in some men following a normal sexual excitement phase, relative to age and current stimulation. aka inhibited orgasm
premature ejaculation recurring jacultion before the person wishes it, with minimal sexual stimulation
sexual pain disorders (dyspareunia) recurring genital pain in either males or females before, during, or after sexual intercourse
vaginismus recurring involuntary muscle spasms in the outer third of the vagina that interfere with sexual intercourse
paraphilias sexual diorders and deviations in which seual arousal occurs almost exclusively in the context of inappropriate objects or individuals
frotteurism paraphilia in which theperson gains sexual gratification by rubbing against unwilling victims in crowds from which they cannot escape
fetishism long-term, recurring, intense sexually arounsing urges, fantasies, or behavior involving the use of nonliving, unusual objects, which cause distress or impairment in life functioning
voyeurism paraphilia in which sexual arousal is derived from observing unsuspecting individuals undressing or naked
exhibitionism sexual gratification attained by exposing gentials to unsuspecting strangers
transvestic fetishism paraphilia in which individuals, usually males, are sexually aroused or receive gratification by wearing clothing of the opposite gender
sexual sadism paraphilia in which sexual arousal is associated with inflicting pain or humiliation
sexual masochism paraphilia in which sexual arousal is associated with experiencing pain or humiliation
pedophilia paraphilia involving strong sexual attracton toward children
incest deviant sexual attration (pedophilia) directed toward a family member; often the attraction of a father toward a daughter who is maturing physically
covert sensitization cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce unwanted behaviors by having clients imagine the extremely aversive consequences of the behaviors and establish negative rather than positive associations with them
orgasmic reconditioning learning procedure to help clients strengthen appropriate patterns of sexual arousal by pairing appropriate stimuli with the pleasurable sensations of masturbation
schizophrenia devastating psychoti disorder thatmay involve characteristic disturbances in thinking (delusions), perception (hallucinations), speech, emotions, and behavior
catatonia disorder of movement involving immobility or excited agitation
hebephrenia silly and immature emotionality, a characteristic of some types of schizophrenia
paranoia people's irrational beliefs that thy are especially important (delusions of grandeur) or that other people are seeking to do them harm
dementia praecox latin term meaning "premature loss of min," an early label for what is now called schizophrenia, emphasizing the disorder's frequent appearance during adolescence
associative splitting separation among basic functions of human personality (eg. cognition, emotion and perception) seen by some as the defining characteristic of schizophrenia
psychotic behavior severe psychological disorder cateogry characterized by hallucinations and loss of contact with reality
positive symptoms more overt symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, displayed by some people with schizophrenia
negative symptoms less outgoing symptoms, such as flat affect and poverty of speech, displayed by some people with schizophrenia
avolition apathy, or the inability to initiate or persist in important activities
alogia deficiency in the amount or content of speech, a disturbance often seen in people with schizophrenia
anhedonia inability to experience pleasure, associated with some mood and schizophrenic disorders
flat affect apparently emotionless demeanor (including toneless speech and vacant gaze) when a raction would be expected
disorganized speech style of talking often seen in people with schizophrenia, involving incoherence and a lack of typical logic patterns
inappropriate affect emotional displays that are improper for the situation
catatonic immobility disturbance of motor behavior in which theperson remains motionless, sometimes in an awkward posture, for extended periods
paranoid type of schizophrenia type of schizophrenia in which symptoms primaryily inolve delusions and hallucinations; speech and motor and emtional behavior are relatively intact
disorganized type of schizophrenia type of schizophrenia featuring disrupted speech and behavior, disjointed delusions and hallucinations, and silly or flat affect
catatonic type of schizophrenia type of schizophrenia in which motor disturbances (rigidity, agitation, and odd mannerisms) predominate
undifferentiated type of schizophrenia category for individuals who meet the criteria for schizophrenia but not for one of the defined subtypes
residual type of schizophrenia diagostic category or people who have experienced at least one episode of schizophrenia and who no longer display its major symptoms but still show some bizarre thoughts or social withdrawal
schizophreniform disorder psychotic disorder involving the symptoms of schizophrenia but lasting less than 6 months
schizoaffective disorder psychotic disorder featuring symptoms of both schizophrenia and major mood disorder
delusional disorder psychotic disorder featuring a persistent belief contrary to reality (delusion) but no other symptoms of schizophrenia
brief psychotic disorder psychotic disturbances involving delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech or behavior but lasting less than 1 month; often occurs in reaction to a stressor
shared psychotic disorder (folie a deux) psychotic disturbance in which individuals develop a delusion similarto that of a person with whom they share a close relationship
schizotypal personality disorder cluster A (odd) personality disorder involving a pervasive pattern of interpersonal deficits featuing acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships, as well as cognitive or perceptual distortions ad eccentricities of behavior
schizophrenogenic mother according to an obsolete, unsupported theory, a cold, dominating, and rejecting parent who was thoughtt cause schizophrenia in her offspring
double bind communication according to an obsolete, unsupported theory, the practice of transmitting conflicting messages that was thought to cause schizophrenia
expressed emotion (EE) hostility, criticism, and overinvolvement demonstrated by some families toward a family member with a psychological disorder. this can often contribute to the person's relapse
token economy social learning behavior modification system in which individuals earn items they can exchange for desired rewards by displaying appropriate behaviors
Created by: daniellaxd on 2010-03-01



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