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Science - Test #2

Science Chapter 3 Test

Element Any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances. An element is made up of one kind of atom.
Compound Two or more elements that are chemically combined. The smallest unit of any compound is called a molecule.
Carbohydrate An energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Lipid Energy-rich organic compound, such as fat, oil, or wax, that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Protein Large organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfer. Foods high in protein are meat, eggs, fish, nuts and beans.
Amino Acid A small module that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins.
Enzyme A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing.
Nucleic Acid Very long organic molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus, that contain the instructions cells need to carry out all of the functions of life.
DNA - What is it's function? - Where is it found? - Write the long term. One of the two types of nucleic acids. Genetic material that carries information about the organism and it is passed from parent to offspring. The information in DNA directs all the cell's functions. Found in chromatin in nucleus.DEOXYRIBO NUCLEIC ACID
RNA - What is the function? - Where is it found? - Write out the long word. Plays an important role in the production of proteins. It is found in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. It is one of the two kinds of nucleic acids (DNA is the other kind). RIBO NUCLEIC ACID
Selectively Permeable Membrane A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot.
Diffusion The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Osmosis The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane.
Passive Transport The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using the cells energy.
Active Transport The movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy.
Respiration - C6H1206 + 602 - 6C02 + 6H20 + ENERGY sugar + oxygen - carbon dioxide + water + energy The process cells use to break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they contain.
Fermentation The process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen.
Cell Cycle The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo.
Interphase The stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs.
Mitosis The stage of the cycle during which the cells nucleus divide into two nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell.
Chromosome A doubled rod of condensed chromatin.
Cytokinesis The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.
Spindle fibers Form a bridge between the ends of the cells.
Centromere Each chromosome attaches to a spindle fiber at it's centromere.
Centriole During the Interphase - the cell grows to it's mature size, makes a copy of it's DNA, and prepares to divide into two cells. Two cylindrical structures called centrioles are also copied.
Insulin A chemical produced in the pancreas that enables the body's cell to take in glucose from the blood and use it for energy.
Created by: studyshack101