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5/6- Ch. 4

States of Matter

physical state of a material, whether a solid, a liquid, or a gas, which depends mostly on how the material's atoms and molecules are arranged and how they move state of matter
anything that has mass and takes up space and whose particles are in constant motion matter
states that the particles of all matter are in constant random motion kinetic theory of matter
temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid melting point
heat required to melt one kilogram of a solid at its melting point heat of fusion
temperature at which attractive forces trap particles in a cooling liquid and form crystals freezing point
temperature at which added heat energy causes the molecules of a liquid to move faster and the liquid's particles to enter the gaseous state in large numbers boiling point
amount of energy required to change one kilogram of a liquid into a gas heat of vaporization
process by which the fastest moving molecules of a liquid escape from the surface and form a gas evaporation
process where particles in a cooling gas slow down and come together to form droplets of liquid condensation
mixing of particles in a gas or a liquid diffusion
states that the pressure exerted on any point of a confined fluid is transmitted unchanged throughout the fluid Pascal's principle
mass of an object divided by its volume density
states that when an object is placed in a fluid, the object weighs less by an amount equal to the weight of the displaced fluid Archimedes' principle
decrease in the weight of an object in a fluid due to the net upward force caused by the displaced fluid buoyancy
Created by: mktrausch