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SAFMEDS ABA

White Book

DefinitionTerm
The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior Applied Behavior Analysis
The assumption that the universe is a lawful and orderly place in which phenomena occur in relation to other events and not in a willy-nilly, accidental fashion Determinism
The objective observation of the phenomena of interest Empiricism
A carefully controlled comparison of some measure of the phenomenon of interest (DV) under two or more different conditions in which only one factor at a time (IV) differs from one condition to another Experimentation
The practice of ruling out simple, logical explanations, experimentally or conceptually, before considering more complex or abstract explanations Parsimony
An attitude that the truthfulness and validity of all scientific theory and knowledge should be continuously questioned Philosophic Doubt
A systematic approach to natural phenomena that relies on determinism: fundamental assumption, empiricism: primary rule, experimentation: basic strategy, replication: believability, parsimony: value, and philosophic doubt: guiding conscience Science
An environmental condition or stimulus change existing or occurring prior to a behavior of interest Antecedent
The activity of living organisms; everything that people do Behavior
A stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest Consequence
Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions Positive Reinforcement
Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the removal of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions Negative Reinforcement
The philosophy of a science of behavior; there are various forms Behaviorism
A natural science approach to the study of behavior as a subject matter in its own right founded by B.F. Skinner Experimental Analysis of Behavior
as a function of the operation of one or more specified and controlled variables in the experiment in which a specific change in DV can be produced by manipulating IV and that DV change was unlikely the result of other factors (confounding variables) Functional Relation
An approach to explaining behavior that assumes that a mental, or "inner", dimension exists that differs from a behavioral dimension and that phenomena in this dimension either directly cause or at least mediate some forms of behavior, if not all Mentalism
A thoroughgoing form of behaviorism that attempts to understand all human behavior, including private events such as thoughts and feelings, in terms of controlling variables in the history of the person (ontogeny) and the species (phylogeny) Radical Behaviorism
The discontinuing of a reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior Extinction
An environmental variable that (a) alters (incr/decr) the reinforcing/punishing effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event; and (b) alters the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced/punished by that stimulus, object, or event Motivating Operation
A group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment Response Class
A group of stimuli that share specified common elements along formal, temporal, and/or functional dimensions Stimulus Class
Reinforcement that occurs independent of the social mediation of others Automatic Reinforcement
A stimulus change that functions as a reinforcer because of prior pairing with one or more other reinforcers; sometimes called secondary or learned reinforcer Conditioned Reinforcer
A principle that states that making the opportunity to engage in a high-probability behavior contingent on the occurrence of a low-frequency behavior will function as reinforcement for the low-frequency behavior Premack Principle
Refers to a variety of direct, empirical methods for presenting one or more stimuli contingent on a target response and measuring their effectiveness as reinforcers Reinforcer Assessment
A stimulus change that increases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus Unconditioned Reinforcer
A schedule of reinforcement in which two or more contingencies of reinforcement (elements) operate independently and simultaneously for two or more behaviors Concurrent Schedule
A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is delivered for the first response emitted following the passage of a fixed duration of time since the last response was reinforced Fixed Interval
A schedule of reinforcement requiring a fixed number of responses for reinforcement Fixed Ratio
A situation in which reinforcement is available only during a finite time following the elapse of an FI or VI interval; if the target response does not occur within the time limit, reinforcement is withheld and a new interval begins Limited Hold
A behavioral effect associated with abrupt increases in ratio requirements when moving from denser to thinner reinforcement schedules; common effects include avoidance, aggression, and unpredictable pauses or cessation in responding Ratio Strain
Changing a contingency of reinforcement by gradually increasing the response ratio or the extent of the time interval; it results in a lower rate of reinforcement per responses, time, or both Schedule Thinning
A schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement for the first correct response following the elapse of variable durations of time occurring in a random or unpredictable order Variable Interval
A schedule of reinforcement requiring a varying number of responses for reinforcement Variable Ratio
A response behavior is followed immediately by the removal of a stimulus (or a decrease in the intensity of the stimulus), that decreases the future frequency of similar responses under similar conditions (Type II) Negative Punishment
A behavior change tactic based on positive punishment in which, contingent on the problem behavior, the learner is required to engage in effortful behavior directly or logically related to fixing the damage caused by the behavior Overcorrection
A form of overcorrection in which, contingent on an occurrence of the target behavior, the learner is required to repeat a correct form of the behavior, or a behavior incompatible with the problem behavior, a specified number of times Positive Practice Overcorrection
A behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of the behavior (Type I) Positive Punishment
Contingent on the problem behavior, the learner is required to repair the damage or return the environment to its original state and then to engage in additional behavior to bring the environment to a condition better than it was prior to the misbehavior Restitutional Overcorrection
A procedure for implementing time-out in which, contingent on the occurrence of the target behavior, the person remains within the setting, but does not have access to reinforcement, for a specified period Nonexclusion Time-Out
The contingent loss of reinforcers, producing a decrease of the frequency of behavior Response Cost
The contingent withdrawal of the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement or the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a specified time Time-Out from Positive Reinforcement
A motivating operation that decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event Abolishing Operation (AO)
A stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced Discriminative Stimulus (SD)
A motivating operation that establishes (increases) the effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event as a reinforcer Establishing Operation (EO)
A situation in which the frequency, latency, duration, or amplitude of a behavior is altered by the presence or absence of an antecedent stimulus Stimulus Control
A stimulus in the presence of which a given behavior has not produced reinforcement in the past Stimulus Delta (S^)
The emergence of accurate responding to untrained and nonreinforced stimulus-stimulus relations following the reinforcement of responses to some stimulus-stimulus relations Stimulus Equivalence
When an antecedent stimulus has a history of evoking a response that has been reinforced in its presence, the same type of behavior tends to be evoked by stimuli that share similar physical properties with the controlling antecedent stimulus Stimulus Generalization
A behavior controlled by any physical movement that serves as a novel model excluding vocal-verbal behavior, has formal similarity with the model, and immediately follows the occurrence of the model. Imitation
Using differential reinforcement to produce a series of gradually changing response classes; each response class is a successive approximation toward a terminal behavior. Shaping
A teaching procedure in which trainer completes all but last behavior in a chain, which is performed by learner; then learner emits final two steps for reinforcement; sequence is continued until learner completes entire chain independently. Backward Chaining
A method for teaching behavior chains that begins with learner being prompted to perform the first behavior; when learner demonstrates competence of first behavior, he is taught the first two behaviors; process continues until entire chain is completed. Forward Chaining
The process of breaking a complex skill or series of behaviors into smaller, teachable units; also refers to the result of this process. Task Analysis
An increase in the frequency of responding when an extinction procedure is initially implemented. Extinction Burst
A metaphor to describe a rate of responding and its resistance to change following an alteration in reinforcement conditions. Behavioral Momentum
An antecedent intervention in which an appropriate communicative behavior is taught as a replacement behavior for problem behavior usually evoked by an (EO); involves (DRA). Functional Communication Training
Behaviors, practices, and decisions that address such basic and fundamental questions as: What is the right thing to do? What's worth doing? What does it mean to be a good behavior analytic practitioner? Ethics
When the potential recipient of services or participant in a research study gives his explicit permission before any assessment or treatment is provided. Full disclosure of effects and side effects must be provided. Informed Consent
A two-phase experimental design consisting of a pre-treatment baseline condition followed by a treatment condition A-B Design
A three-phase design consisting of an initial baseline phase, an intervention phase, and a return to baseline phase. All phases are implemented until steady state responding is obtained A-B-A Design
An experimental design consisting of and initial baseline phase, an intervention phase, return to baseline, and a second intervention phase to see if initial treatment effects are replicated A-B-A-B Design
A decrease in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is increased in reinforcing effectiveness by the same motivating operation Abative Effect (of a motivating operation)
The extent to which observed values, the data produced by measuring an event, match the true state, or true values, of the event as it exists in nature Accuracy
An experimental design in which two or more conditions (one of which may be a control) are presented in rapidly alternating succession independent of the level of responding; response differentiation Alternating Treatments Design
A form of direct, continuous observation in which the observer records a descriptive, temporally sequenced account of all behaviors of interest and the antecedents and consequences for those behaviors as they occur Anecdotal Observation (ABC recording)
A behavior change strategy that manipulates contingency-independent antecedent stimuli (motivating operations) Antecedent Intervention
A data path that shows an increasing trend in the response measure over time Ascending Baseline
Anyone who functions as a discriminative stimulus evoking verbal behavior Audience
A secondary verbal operant in which some aspect of a speaker's own verbal behavior functions as an SD or an MO for additional speaker verbal behavior (verbal behavior about verbal behavior) Autoclitic
Punishment that occurs independent of the social mediation by others Automatic Punishment
Behavior is modified by its consequences irrespective of the person's awareness; a person does not have to recognize the relation between behavior and consequence for reinforcement to work Automaticity of reinforcement
A stimulus change that functions (a) to evoke behavior that has terminated it in the past; (b) as a punisher when presented following behavior, (c) as a reinforcer when withdrawn following behavior Aversive Stimulus
A contingency in which a response prevents or postpones the presentation of a stimulus Avoidance Contingency
A three phase experimental design that begins with the treatment condition B-A-B Design
Tangible objects, activities, or privileges that serve as reinforcers and that can be purchased with tokens Backup Reinforcers
A condition of an experiment in which the independent variable is not present; a control condition that means the absence of a specific independent variable of experimental interest Baseline
An alteration in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is altered in effectiveness by the same motivating operation Behavior-Altering Effect (of a motivating operation)
A sequence of responses in which each response produces a stimulus change that functions as conditioned reinforcement for that response and as a discriminative stimulus for the next response Behavior Chain
A form of assessment that involves a full range of inquiry methods to identify probable antecedent and consequent controlling variables Behavioral Assessment
The phenomenon in which a change in one component of a multiple schedule that increases or decreases the rate of responding on the component is accompanied by a change in the response rate in the opposite direction on the other, unaltered component Behavioral Contrast
A behavior that has sudden and dramatic consequences that extend well beyond the idiosyncratic change itself because it exposes the person to new environments, reinforcers, contingencies, responses, and stimulus controls Behavioral Cusp
An experimental design in which an initial baseline phase is folloed by a series of treatment phases consisting of successive and gradually changing criteria for reinforcement or punishment Changing Criterion Design
A motivating operation whose value-altering effect depends on a learning history Conditioned Motivating Operation
A situation in which a person in a position of responsibility or trust has competing professional or personal interests that make it difficult to fulfill his or her duties impartially Conflict of Interest
An uncontrolled factor known or suspected to exert influence on the dependent variable Confounding Variable
Refers to dependent and/or temporal relations between operant behavior and its controlling variables Contingency
Measurement conducted in a manner such that all instances of the response class(es) of interest are detected during the observation period Continuous Measurement
A schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement for each occurrence of the target behavior Continuous Reinforcement
An elementary verbal operant that is evoked by a nonvocal verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the controlling response Copying a Text
The results of measurement, usually in quantifiable form; measures of some quantifiable dimension of behavior Data
The level and trend of behavior between successive data points Data Path
The variable in an experiment measured to determine if it changes as a result of manipulations of the independent variable; some measure of socially significant behavior Dependent Variable
The state of an organism with respect to how much time has elapsed since it has consumed or contacted a particular type of reinforcer; procedure for increasing effectiveness of reinforcer Deprivation
Reinforcing only those responses within a response class that meet a specific criterion along some dimension and placing all other responses in the class on extinction Differential Reinforcement
A procedure for decreasing problem behavior in which reinforcement is delivered for a behavior that serves as a desirable alternative to the behavior targeted for reduction Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)
A procedure for decreasing problem behavior in which reinforcement is delivered for behavior that is topographically incompatible with the behavior targeted for reduction Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI)
A procedure for decreasing problem behavior in which reinforcement is delivered contingent on the absence of the problem behavior during or at specified times Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
Any operant whose response rate is controlled by a given opportunity to emit the response Discrete Trial
A measure of the total extent of time in which a behavior occurs Duration
An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the response Echoic
An assessment protocol that acknowledges complex interrelationships between environment and behavior. Ecological Assessment
The conglomerate of real circumstances in which the organism exists. Environment
A contingency in which a response terminates an ongoing stimulus. Escape Contingency
Emitting the target behavior does not enable the person to escape the aversive situation. Escape Extinction
Measurement procedure for obtaining a tally or count of the number of times a behavior occurs. Event Recording
A procedure for implementing time-out in which, contingent on the occurrence of a target behavior, the person is removed physically from the current environment for a specified period. Exclusion Time-Out
The outcome of an experiment that demonstrates convincingly a functional relation; the extent to which a researcher maintains precise control of the independent variable Experimental Control
The particular type and sequence of conditions in a study so that meaningful comparisons of the effects of the presence and absence (or different values) of the independent variable can be made. Experimental Design
The degree to which a study's findings have generality to other subjects, settings, and/or behaviors. External Validity
A procedure for transferring stimulus control in which features of an antecedent stimulus controlling a behavior are gradually changed to a new stimulus while maintaining the current behavior Fading
A schedule for delivery of non-contingent stimuli in which a time interval remains the same from one delivery to the next. Fixed-time Interval (FT)
A ratio of count per observation time; dividing the number of responses recorded by the number of standard units of time Frequency
An analysis of the purposes of problem behaviors; antecedents and consequences are manipulated and the effects on behavior are measured Functional Analysis
Systematic method of assessment for obtaining information about the purposes a problem behavior serves for a person Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
A systematic process for identifying and selecting teaching examples that represent the full range of stimulus variations and response requirements in the generalization settings. General Case Analysis
A conditioned reinforcer that as a result of having been paired with many other reinforcers does not depend on an establishing operation for any particular form of reinforcement for its effectiveness Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer
Contingency in which reinforcement for all members of a group is dependent on the behavior of (a)a person, (b)select group, or (c)each member of the group meeting performance criterion Group contingency
Antecedent intervention in which 2-5 easy tasks with a known history of learner compliance are presented in quick succession immediately before requesting the target task High-probability (high-p) request sequence
Contingency in which reinforcement for each member of a group is dependent on that person's meeting a performance criterion that is in effect for all members of the group Independent Group Contingency
The variable that is systematically manipulated by the researcher Independent Variable
Contingency in which reinforcement for all members of a group is dependent on each member of the group meeting a performance criterion that is in effect for all members of the group Interdependent Group Contingency
The extent to which an experiment shows convincingly that changes in behavior are a function of the independent variable and not the result of uncontrolled variables Internal Validity
The degree to which two or more independent observers report the same observed values after measuring the same events Interobserver Agreement (IOA)
A measure of temporal locus; defined as the elapsed time between two successive responses Interresponse Time (IRT)
An elementary verbal operant that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus and that does not have point-to-point correspondence with that verbal stimulus Intraverbal
The value on the vertical axis around which a series of behavioral measures converge Level
Someone who provides reinforcement for verbal behavior Listener
The force or intensity with which a response is emitted Magnitude
The extent to which the learner continues to perform the target behavior after a portion or all of the intervention has been terminated Maintenance
An elementary verbal operant that is evoked by an MO and followed by specific reinforcement Mand
The allocation of responses to choices available on concurrent schedules of reinforcement Matching Law
A method of measuring behavior after it has occurred by recording the effects that the behavior produced on the environment measurement by Permanent Product
A measurement method in which the presence of absence of behaviors are recorded at precisely specified time intervals Momentary Time Sampling
Instruction that provides the learner with practice with a variety of stimulus conditions, response variations, and topographies to promote generalization Multiple Exemplar Training
A stimulus whose termination (or reduction in intensity) functions as reinforcement Negative reinforcer
Procedure in which stimuli with known reinforcing properties are presented on FT or VT schedules completely independent of behavior Non-contingent reinforcement (NCR)
Any unintended change in the way an observer uses a measurement system over the course of an investigation that results in measurement error Observer drift
The history of the development of an individual organism during its lifetime Ontogeny
Behavior that is selected, maintained, and brought under stimulus control as a function of its consequences Operant behavior
consequences result in an increased or decreased frequency of the same type of behavior under similar motivational and environmental conditions in the future Operant conditioning
A experiment designed to discover the differential effects of a range of values of an independent variable Parametric Analysis
Time sampling method for measuring behavior, divided into intervals, in which the observer records whether the target behavior occurred at any time during the interval Partial Interval Recording
The history of the natural evolution of a species Phylogeny
A behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of that behavior Positive punishment (Type 1)
A stimulus whose presentation or onset functions as a reinforcer Positive reinforcer
The absence of responding for a period of time following reinforcement Postreinforcement Pause
A statement of the anticipated outcome of a presently unknown or future measurement Prediction
A stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of a behavior that immediately precedes it Punisher
Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions Punishment
Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions Reinforcement
A stimulus change that increases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it Reinforcer
Refers to the consistency of measurement, specifically, the extent to which repeated measurement of the same event yeilds similar values Reliability (of measurement)
Refers to the fact that a behavior can occur repeatedly through time (i.e. behavior can be counted) Repeatability
all of the behaviors a person can do Repertoire
The relative frequency with which operant behavior is emitted during extinction Resistance to Extinction
Behavior that is elicited, or induced, by antecedent stimuli Respondent behavior
A stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure (classical or Pavlovian) Respondent Conditioning
A single instance or occurrence of a specific class or type of behavior Response
A procedure in which the therapist physically intervenes as soon as the learner begins to emit a problem behavior to prevent completion of the targeted behavior Response Blocking
The extent to which a learner emits untrained responses that are functionally equivalent to the trained target behavior Response Generalization
A measure of temporal locus; the elapsed time from the onset of a stimulus to the initiation of a response Response latency
The extent to which a learner continues to perform the target behavior after a portion or all of the intervention responsible for the behavior's initial appearance has been terminated Response Maintenance
A decrease in the frequency of operant behavior presumed to be the result of continued contact or consumption of the reinforcer that has followed the behavior Satiation
A wide variety of research designs that use a form of experimental reasoning called baseline logic to demonstrate the effects of the independent variable on the behavior of individual subjects Single subject designs
Refers to the extent to which target behaviors are appropriate, intervention procedures are acceptable, and important and significant changes in target and collateral behaviors are produced Social Validity
Someone who engages in verbal behavior by emitting mands, tacts, intraverbals, autoclitics, and so on Speaker
A line drawn through a series of graphed data points that shows the overall trend; through intersections of vertical and horizontal middles then adjusted so that half of data points fall above and below line Split-middle line of progress
A behavioral effect associated with extinction in which the behavior suddenly begins to occur after its frequency has decreased to its prereinforcement level or stopped entirely Spontaneous Recovery
Data that shows no evidence of an upward or downward trend Stable baseline
Conventional procedure requires on behavior and two antecedent conditions; responses reinforced in presence of one condition and not the other Stimulus Discrimination Training
A variety of procedures used to determine the stimuli that a person prefers, the relative preference values of those stimuli, the conditions unnder which values remain in effect, and presumed value as reinforcers Stimulus Preference Assessment
The sequence of new response classes that emerge during the shaping process as the result of differential reinforcement Successive Approximations
An experiment in which the researcher purposefully varies one or more aspects of an earlier experiment Systematic Replication
An elementary verbal operant evoked by a noverbal discriminative stimulus and followed by generalized conditioned reinforcement Tact
The response class selected for intervention; can be defined either functionally or topographically Target Behavior
A strategy for promoting generalized behavior change that consists of teaching the learner to respond to a subset of all the relevant stimulus and response examples then assessing performance on untrained examples Teaching Sufficient Examples
The end product of shaping Terminal behavior
An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence, but not formal similarity between the stimulus and response product Textual
The basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior; encompasses the temporal and possible dependent relations among antecedent stimulus, behavior, and consequence Three-term contingency
A measurement of the presence or absence of behavior within specific time intervals; most useful with continuous and high-rate behaviors Time Sampling
An object that is awarded contingent on appropriate behavior that serves as the medium of exchange for backup reinforcers Token
A system whereby participants earn generalized conditioned reinforcers as an immediate consequence for specific behaviors, accumulate them, and exchange them for backup reinforcers Token economy
The physical form or shape of behavior Topography
A variation of forward chaining in which the learner receives training on each behavior in the chain during each session Total-task chaining
An elementary verbal operant involving a spoken verbal stimulus that evokes a written, typed, or finger-spelled response Transcription
The extent to which the independent variable is applied exactly as panned and described and no other unplanned variables are administered inadvertently along with the planned treatment Treatment Integrity
The overall direction taken by a data path; described in terms of direction, degree, and extent of variability Trend
A stimulus change that decreases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus Unconditioned Punisher
The stimulus component of an unconditioned reflex; a stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without any prior learning Unconditioned stimulus
The extent to which data obtained from measurement are directly relevant to the target behavior of interest and to the reason(s) for measuring it Validity (of measurement)
The frequency and extent to which multiple measures of behavior yield different outcomes Variability
A schedule for the delivery of noncontingent stimuli in which the interval of time from one delivery to the next randomly varies around a given time Variable-Time Schedule (VT)
Behavior whose reinforcement is mediated by a listener; includes both vocal-verbal and nonvocal-verbal Verbal behavior
One of three components of the experimental reasoning; accomplished by demonstrating that the prior level of baseline responding would have remained unchanged had the independent variable not been introduced Verification
A systematic approach for interpreting the results of behavioral research and treatment programs that entails visual inspection of graphed data for variability, level, and trend within and between experimental conditions Visual Analysis
A time-sampling method for measuring behavior in which the observer records whether the target behavior occurred throughout the entire interval Whole Interval Recording
An experiment designed to identify the active elements of a treatment condition, relative contributions of different variables in a treatment package, and/or the necessary components of an intervention Component analysis
A complex example of stimulus control that requires stimulus generalization within a class of stimuli and discrimination between classes of stimuli Concept formation
A previously neutral stimulus change the functions as a punisher because of prior pairing with one or more other punishers Conditioned punisher
The stimulus component of a conditioned reflex; formerly neutral stimulus change that elicits repsondent behavior only after it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus
A type of graph on which the cumulative number of responses emitted is represented on the vertical axix; the steeper the slope of the data path, the greater the response rate Cumulative record
A contingency in which reinforcement for all members of a group is dependent on one member of the group or the behavior of a select group of members within a larger group Dependent group contingency
Reinforcement is provided contingent on the number of responses emitted being greater than a gradually increasing criterion Differential reinforcement of high rates (DRH)
Reinforcement is provided contingent on the number of responses not exceeding a predetermined criterion Differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL)
An experiment in which the researcher attempts to duplicate exactly the conditions of an earlier experiment Direct replication
Experimental design that begis with concurrent measurement of two or more baselines, followed by application of the IV to one of the behaviors while conditions remain in effect for the other baselines Multiple baseline design
A ratio of count per observation time; calculated by dividing the number of responses recorded by the number of standard units of time in which observations were conducted Rate
Any experimental design in which the researcher attempts to verify the effect of the IV by "reversing" responding to a level obtained in a previous condition Reversal design
Enables human behavior to come under indirect control of temporally remote or improbable but potentially significant consequences Rule-governed behavior
Created by: abbyg325 on 2010-02-02



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