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nonverbal chap3


Gestures often convey a person's true feeling behind his or her words.
Kinesics the study of the communicative impact of body movement and gesture head movements, eye behaviors, facial expressions, posture, movements of the trunk, hands, arms, feet, legs and fingers
Types of gestures and movements emblems, illustrators, regulators, affect displays and adaptors.
emblems speech-independent gestures that have a direct verbal translation, used intentionally, known by entire group note: the emblem is the action or gesture, the function is substituting
types of nonverbal communication intrinsic, iconic, arbitrary
intrinsic behaviors that have a direct relationship to biologically shared signal systems
iconic behaviors linked to a biological system but used purposefully
arbitrary behaviors created within a social or cultural group
illustrators help demonstrate what is being said, no meaning without spoken word, usually intentional
1st category of illustrator-gestures related to speech referent or explanation movements that illustrate the idea or spoken word I caught a fish "this big"
2nd category of illustrator-gestures that suggest the sources relationship to the speech referent or explanation gestures suggest the senders acculturation or attitude to the referent waving the hand back and forth to say "so-so" or sticking out the tongue as you say "awful"
3rd category of illustrator-gestures that highlight, punctuate or emphasize a spoken word or msg in conversation raising a finger for each point as we explain it to highlight the idea
4th category of illustrator-interaction gestures that help the source in organizing, managing or directing the conversation gestures used in conjunction with speech which signal when it's another persons turn to talk or remain quiet head, hand, eye or body movements that signal or punctuate speech
regulators movements that illustrate the idea or spoken word unintentional learned behaviors that become ingrained habits
turn-taking behaviors those that the speaker uses to maintiain or yield her or his talking turn and those that the listener uses to request or decline an invitatio to talk turn-yielding, turn-maintaining, turn-requesting, turn-denying
turn-yielding cues given by speakers who wish to discontinue talking and give the listener the opportunity to take the speaking role. Letting the listener know you are coming to a verbal stop. body orientation, forward lean, beckoning gesture
turn-maintaining used by speakers who want to continue talking. especially observable when the listener is trying to interrupt. They indicate that you have more to say. minimum eye contact, increased rate and loudness of speech, holding up your hand to the listener
turn-requesting used by the listener to signal they want to talk raise hand or finger, straightening of posture
turn-denying listeners use to decline their turn to speak relaxed posture while remaining silent, positive head nods,
affect displays provide information about a person's emotional state or mood shown through facial expressions, posture, walk, and other behavior
Adaptors Highly unintentional behaviors that are in response to boredom or stress
self-adaptors nonverbal acts in which an individual manipulates their own body nail biting, scratching, rubbing, hair twisting
alter-directed adaptors movements that are designed to protect an individual from other interactants folding arms in front of self, unconscious leg movements
object-focused adaptors unconscious manipulation of an object tapping a pen, smoking, twisting a ring around your finger
communication styles the way a person verbally and nonverbally interacts to signal how literal meaning should be taken, interpreted, filtered or understood in the communication process dramatic, dominant, animated, relaxed, attentive, open, friendly, contentious, impression-leaving
dramatic style masters of exaggeration, tells a lot of stories use of illustrative behaviors. popularity, attractiveness and status are enhanced by this style
dominant style uses nonverbal cues to dominate listeners expansive body posture and movements that fill space. seen as confident, conceited, self-assured, competitive, forceful, active and enthusiastic
animated style exaggerated bodily motions and gestures frequent head nods and smiles
relaxed style collected and calm internally in anxiety producing situations lack of tension in the body indicates self-assurance
attentive style listening to or receiving messages from others active listening, forward leaning, head nods and gestures that encourage the speaker to continue. it's all about the other person
open style expansive, unreserved, extroverted and approach- oriented bodily activity encourages open communication
friendly style absence of hostility to signals of deep intimacy forward leaning, affectionate, touching, stroking manner
contentious style aggressive dominance argumentative, they sound like they want to fight
impression-leaving style impression a communicator projects or leaves not just how the person is remembered, but whether they leave an impression at all
Created by: schaunag