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APES 1st Semester

Soil renewable
2 Major Factors in Soil Erosion wind and flowing water
Desert soil hot, dry climate = weak humus, reddish/brown
Grassland soil semiarid climate = alkaline (basic) dark
Tropical rain forest soil humid, tropical climate = acidic light
Deciduous forest soil humid, mild climate = forest leaf litter, humus/minerals, grayish brown loam, dark brown firm clay
Coniferous forest soil humid, cold climate = acid litter, light
If too acid add lime (an alkaline substance)
If too basic Add sulfur
Clay Smallest; very fine particles
silt Medium fine particles
sand Large
O Horizon surface leaf litter (twigs, leaves, fungi, etc.)
A horizon top soil layer (includes humus, fertile soil)
B horizon subsoil (inorganic matter)
C horizon parent material (like broken down rock)
Ocean circulation helps moderate the earth’s avg. surface temperature by removing 29% of CO2 from the atmosphere
littoral zone shallow sunlit water near shore/to depth plants stop growing
limnetic zone open sunlit surface layer away from shore/produces food for the lake
ENSO Western
Main factors affecting climate temperature and precipitation
Mesosphere coldest layer above strato., Temp DECREASES as you go up
Thermosphere uppermost layer, Temp. increases as you go up
Troposphere lowest layer, includes us, weather (T for TROPICAL), 75
Stratosphere above troposphere, holds ozone
transform fault slide past each other
Biological populations a group of interacting individuals of the same species that occupy a specific area at the same time
Communities populations of different species that occupy a particular place
native species normally live there
non native species Successful because
Intraspecific competition b/t members of the same species
Interspecific competition b/t 2 or more different species for food, space, etc.
Interference competition one may limit another’s access to some resource
Explotative competition one species can use a resource faster (exploit it);humans do this often
Desert evaporation exceeds precipitation
Grassland nough rain for grass to live, but not enough for big trees, can be
Tropical Grassland/Savanna Africa, warm all year, 2 long dry seasons, grazing animals
Temperate Grassland cold winter/hot & dry summers, prairie grass, *used to grow crops
Chaparral temperate shrubland along coastal areas, naturally maintained w/periodic fires (people in this area – like CA, experience fire loss often)
Polar Grassland/Artic Tundra v. cold, no trees, ice/snow, reindeer/caribou (don’t hibernate instead have thick coats), has spongy mat of short plants which grow during 6
Alpine tundra– above limit of tree growth, similar to arctic tundra, has no permafrost
Forest– mod. to high precipitation, lots of trees/smaller vegetation
Temperate Forest avg. rain and change significantly during the seasons, deciduous forests (*lose leaves in winter) including: oak, hickory, maple, poplar, many plants at ground level – have been cleared to make tree plantations
Evergreen Coniferous Forest (called boreal or taiga) v. cold winters, short, mild summers, cone bearing trees with leave yr round, low plant diversity, slow decomposition of leaf litter
Thermal Stratification summer epilimnion: upper layer w/high DO, thermocline: temp changes rapidly, hypolimnion: lower layer, cold dense water where nutrients stay
Cold water (more/less dense than hot?) More
Water most dense at 4 degrees C/39 degrees F
Source zone (turbulent headwaters, lots DO, fish w/flattened bodies)
Transition zone headwaters merge = wider, deeper streams = more producers, lower DO
Floodplain zone streams join into rivers that meander across valleys, higher temp, less DO, empty into ocean
Aerobic respiration Glucose + oxygen  CO2 + water + energy
Anaerobic respiration breaking down glucose in the absence of oxygen; products are methane (CH4), ethyl alcohol, acetic acid (Vinegar), hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
Trophic levels Feeding Level
Producers (plants = self
Primary consumers (herbivores = plant eaters) are in the second trophic level
Secondary consumers (omnivores/carnivores) are in the third trophic level
Tertiary consumers usually the top in a energy pyramid; are in the fourth trophic level (smallest)
Most vulnerable species to extinction/endangerment at top because they require most food to survive
Americans are usually tertiary consumers
Ecological pyramids 90% of useable energy is LOST when transferred from one species to another; creates a pyramid of energy flow
Energy pyramid (self
Detritivores (feed on parts of dead organisms)
Detritus feeders crabs/carpenter ants/termites; extract nutrients from leaf litter/plant debris
Directional Natural Selection–changing conditions cause individuals at one end average to become more common than mid range – “it pays to be different”
Stabilizing Natural Selection eliminates individuals on either end of genetic spectrum, favors individuals w/avg. genetic makeup – “pays to be average”
Diversifying environmental conditions favor individuals at both extremes; “it does not pay to be normal”
Co evolution
Wetlands Services free water purification service, Natural biological pest control
Nitrogen Fixation In the WATER: Cyannobacteria, In the SOIL, Rhizobium bacteria, (live in Legumes) CONVERT Atmospheric Nitrogen to ammonia and the ammonium ion.
Nitrification Aerobic Bacteria in the soil convert the ammonium ion to nitrites then to nitrates which plants absorb.
Ammonification Decomposer bacteria and fungi cause the residues of ammonia to dissolve into the ammonium ion.
Denitrification Anaerobic bacteria convert ammonia and the ammonium ion back to nitrite and nitrate ions then to atmospheric nitrogen and finally to nitrous oxide which return to the atmosphere to start the cycle again.
Assimilation– Plants use (uptake nutrients)
Too little iron anemiafatigue/infections/infant death
Too little Iodine goiterstunted growth/mental retardation
Diet low in calories/protein marasmus
Kwashiorkor severe protein deficiency  stunted growth/mental retardation
Reduce Population family planning; birth spacing; birth control; health care for pregnant women and infants; empowering women/education education, women’s rights; offer incentives/penalties for less kids
infant mortality rate **which is the single most important measure of a society’s quality of life
World 6.3Billion
US 300Million (3rd largest population)
Replacement-level fertility # children a couple must have to replace themselves
Total fertility rate (TFR) estimate of avg. # of children a woman will have during childbearing years if she bears children at the same rate women did this yr
Annual Rate of pop. change (%) Birth – Death/10 if pop=1000
Doubling time 70 / %growth rate (NOT IN DECIMAL)
Pre-industrial little growth b/c harsh living conditions = high birth rate + high death rate
Transitional stage (most developing countries now) – industrialization begins, health care improves, death rates drop, birth rates stay high
Industrial stage (many developed countries) birth rates drop, slower population growth
Post-industrial stage birth rates decline further, get zero population growth
Surface mining safer than sub-surface
open-pit mining machines dig holes and remove ores
dredging chain buckets/draglines scrape underwater mineral deposits
Area strip-mining strip away overburden and remove minerals (used on flat surface
Mountain removal Explode off mountain top and mine
Sub-surface mining dangerous, removes deep deposits, disturbs less land/produces less waste material
Room and pillar machine out all but a pillar to hold up mine roof
Longwall mining steel props support mine roof
General Mining Law of 1872 allows mining companies to take minerals from public land without paying royalties
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA), 1977 regulates the environmental effects of coal mining (sets standards)
Trawler fishing huge funnel shaped net drags along ocean floor, destroys bottom habitat and catches seals/turtles
Purse-seine fishing drawstring net goes around school of fish like tuna – kills dolphin which swim near tuna
Longlining 80mile long line w/thousands of baited hooks
Drift-net fishing fish caught in huge drifting nets (leads to overfishing)
Fish farming cultivating fish in a controlled environment)
Fish ranching holding fish in captivity, releasing them to spawn, then harvesting them
Fishing Conservation Act aims to end overfishing,
Clean Water Act aims to cut down on pollution of surface water
1961 Federal Water Pollution Control Act surface water quality protection (amended to become the Clean Water Act)
1963 Clear Air Act established air quality standards
1964 Wilderness Act restrict activities in national preserves
1965 Solid Waste Disposal Act regulated treatment, storage, disposal of hazardous wastes
1968 Wild and Scenic Rivers Act environmental policy for rivers
1970 National Environmental Policy Act created council to monitor environmental quality (resulted in the creation of the EPA)
1987 Montreal Protocol signed by many countries, goal was to reduce CFC emissions (help heal the ozone layer)
1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act protects marine animals
1973 Endangered Species Act protects endangered species (KNOW!!!!)
1974 Safe Drinking Water Act monitors drinking water quality
1976 Toxic Substance Control Act control/testing of chemicals that could hurt people or the environment
1977 Soil and Water Conservation Act soil/water conservation programs to help land owners
1980 Superfund bill (Also called CERCLA – Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) tax on chemical/petroleum companies who release hazardous chemicals – pays to clean up hazardous waste sites
1985 Food Security Act discourages the conversion of wetlands to non-wetlands
1990 Pollution Prevention Act designed to stop pollution from being produced
Green Taxes raise taxes on things that cause pollution/tax incentives to things that do not pollute
Wilderness areas (pg627) provide mostly undisturbed habitats for wild plants/animals, provide a natural lab to discover how nature works…preserves biodiversity, protect them as centers of evolution
Wildlife refuges (pg586) Visited to hike, hunt, fish.
National Forests (pg610) managed according to: sustainable yield and Multiple use – including: timber harvesting, recreation, livestock grazing, wildlife…
Malnourishment shortage of adequate vitamins/minerals:
Kwashiorkor lack of protein = swollen abdomen
Marasmus lack of protein/calories = skeletal thinness/wrinkled skin
Anemia lack of Iron = low energy/fatigue
Ariboflavinosis Vit. B2 deficiency (one of the most common in the US) = skin problems, sore mouth
Goiter/Hyperthyroidism iodine deficiency…salt
Rickets Vit D deficiency (not enough Calcium)
Vit. A deficiency poor vision
Scurvy Vic. C deficiency = loose teeth/black and blue skin
Traditional subsistence farm for family
Traditional intensive farm for family and income (more intense to do income too)
First Green Revolution monoculture, high yields, more crops/land
Second Green Revolution dwarf plans, greater yeild
Fuel cell 60%
Steam turbine 45%
Coal 30%
Human Body 20-25%
Fluorescent light 22%
Gas engine 10%
Nuclear 8%
Incandescent light 5%
Photosynthesis (energy from sun) 1%
Ionic compounds metal combined w/non-metal; STRONGEST
Covalent Compounds 2 non-metals combined
Metallic bonds weakest bond
Hydrocarbons CH4 (methane) , C3H9 (butane)
Chlorinated hydrocarbons contain Cl, H, C; ex: DDT, PCBs
Chlorofluorocarbons contains Cl, F, C; these hurt the ozone layer; ex: Freon (in air conditioning/refrigerator coolants)
Carbohydrates (simple sugars 1:2:1 Ratio): C6H12O6 (glucose – broken down by most plants/animals to obtain energy)
Ions electrically charged atoms (anytime you see a charge): H+, Cl-, Mg+2, etc.
Atomic number # of protons an atom has
Mass # mass of an atom: just count protons + neutrons
Isotopes same element, atoms that have a DIFFERENT # of protons and neutrons
pH measure of concentration of H+ in a water solution 1.0 x 10^(-pH #)
First Law of Thermodynamics energy is neither created nor destroyed, it can only be converted from one form to another (energy input is always = to energy output!)
Second Law of Thermodynamics when energy is changed from one form to another, some is ALWAYS degraded to lower-quality, less useful energy (usually HEAT)
1 Watt= 1 J / sec
Power= Energy / time (Watts = Joules/time)
Lead old houses, paints, leaded gas (bioaccumulation/biomagnification – brain damage)
Ultimate Sink Ocean
Clean Water Act sets water quality standards
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) requires EPA to identify hazardous waste and set management standards, makes firms that handle more than 220 pounds of hazardous waste/month to have a permit, has a cradle-to-grave system to keep track of waste through its entire lifetime
Cleanup of brownfields (abandoned industrial/commercial sites that were contaminated) so that they can be used as parks/recreational areas (Congress has enacted laws that limit liability of those who redevelop the area)
Lead toxic neurotoxin that can harm the nervous system of young children and babies – caused by lead-based paints/leaded gasoline (both of which have now been banned in the US – but not other countries)
Mercury potent neurotoxin that can harm brain/spinal cord – comes from waste incineration, coal burning – often humans are exposed because of biomagnification/bioaccumulation from fish
Dioxins carcinogen - unwanted by-product of industrial processes (incineration of municipal and medical wastes – involving chlorine and hydrocarbons) – TCDD is most toxic, found in food supply
Hazardous waste any discarded solid/liquid material that (1)contains one or more of 39 toxic carcinogenic, mutagenic compounds at levels exceeding established limits, (2) catches fire easily, (3) is reactive, (4) can corrode metal containers
Lead neurotoxin – found in old paint and leaded gas
Mercury neurotoxin – mainly from bioaccumulation/biomagnification in fish
Chlorine bad for stratospheric ozone and human health – caused by paper and pulp bleaching
Dioxins chlorinated hydrocarbons from industrial processes – TCDD is most toxic and very persistent
Bioremediation using microorganisms and enzymes to convert hazardous substances to harmless compounds – works well with organic wastes only (inexpensive, but can take a long time)
Phytoremediation using natural plants (poplar, sunflower, clover, mustard) to filter/remove contaminants – effective on pesticides, radioactive metals, and toxic metals (lead, mercury)
Incineration burn waste, can reduce trash volume, but greatly increases air pollution (dioxins)
Reduction of Pollution best solution is always prevention (reduce, reuse, recycle)
Created by: kittycrunk