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SRD Fall Review
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SRD Fall Review
Question  Answer 

science  the observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena 
pseudoscience  a theory, methodology, or practice falsely presented as scientific 
technology  the application of science to the needs of society, esp. to industrial or commercial objectives 
ethics  a set of principles or right conduct in a society, moral philosophy 
reality  the state of things as they actually exist; everything that is, whether or not it is observable or comprehensible 
perception  the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information 
observation  becoming aware of through careful and directed attention 
inductive reasoning  the process of deriving general principles from particular facts or instances; specific observation to general conclusions. Ex. All sheep I've seen are white, so all sheep must be white 
deductive reasoning  the process of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from the premises; from the general to the specific; Ex: All turtles have shells, the animal I have captured is a turtle, and so I conclude that the animal in my bag has a shell 
scientific methods  procedures that scientists use to solve a problem or answer a question; steps; observation, state the problem, research (background information), form a hypothesis, test a hypothesis (experiment), record and analyze data, state a conclusion 
engineering methods  procedures that engineers use to solve a problem; steps: define a need, develop criteria, research, prepare preliminary designs, build and test a prototype, retest and redesign as necessary 
journal  a scientist's laboratory notebook containing the written record of mental and physical activities from their research project. 
annotated bibliography  a list of citations to books, articles, and documents followed by a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph of the relevancy, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited 
APA citation style  the American Psychological Association format for work cited; preferred for writing in science 
Primary source  a source that in an expert in the field being researched 
hypothesis  a tentative explanation for an observation or phenomenon that can be used as the basis for an investigation 
controlled experiment  isolates the effect of one variable on a system by holding constant all variables but the one under observation 
protocol  a set procedure for a scientific experiment 
control  part of an experiment that remains the same 
variable  a changed factor in an experiment 
independent variable  manipulated variable; the scientist deliberately changes it 
dependent variable  responding variable; responds to changes in the manipulated variable 
qualitative data  measure of differences in type rather than amounts. Qualities distinguish these items, Examples include race, gender, and color. also called categorical data 
quantitative data  measure quantity. These are things to which we can assign a number, or that can be measured. Examples include age, height, and weight; also called measurement variables 
accuracy  a measurement of the closeness with an accepted value 
precision  degree of exactness; how close a series of measurements are to one another 
random errors  statistical fluctuation in measured data due to precision limitations of the measurements device; usually result from the experimenter's inability to take the same measurement in exactly the same way to get exactly the same number 
systematic errors  reproducible inaccuracies that are consistently in the same direction; due to a problem (such as am improperly tared scale), which persists throughout the entire experiment 
significant digits  those digits of a number that carry meaning contributing to its precision 
dimensional analysis  a conceptual tool often applied in science, engineering, mathematics, and statistics to understand physical situations involving a mix of different kinds of physical quantities 
continuous variables  take on any value on the scale used to measure it; measure "how much" examples include mass, length, and volume 
discrete variables  can assume only a few possible values on the scale used to measure it; divisions of these values are not valid, measure of "how many" 
mean  arithmetic average, the most common measure of center 
median  represents the middle value in a distribution 
mode  the most repeated number in a distribution 
range  first to last number in an ordered pair; to find subtract the smallest observation from the largest 
quartile  a fourth of a group of numbers 
interquartile range  a measurement of the distance between the first and third quartiles; measures the spread of the middle half of the data 
five number summary  consists of the smallest observation, the first quartile, the median, the third quartile, and the largest observation of a data set 
outliers  an observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data. An observation is an outlier if it falls more than 1.5 x IQR below Q1 or above Q3 
variance  the sum of the squared deviation divided by n1 
standard deviation  measurement of the spread of values; square root of the variance 
stem and leaf plots  a display that organizes data to show its shape and distribution, Each Data value is split into a "stem" and a "leaf." The "leaf" is usually the last digit of the number and the other digits to the left of the "leaf(s)" form the the stem 
box and whisker plots  graphical representation helpful in interpreting the distribution of data. A box is drawn with ends thru Q1 and Q3.Then a vertical line is drawn through the box at the median.Next the lines are drawn from each end of the box to the smallest/largest values 
histogram  a bar graph of frequency distribution, can be skewed or in a bell shaped curve 
bell curve  normal "bell shaped" curve of a histogram; they have identifiable standard deviation 
normal distribution  a population of continuous variables in a bell shaped symmetrical curve 
skewed distribution  a population of continuous variables in an asymmetrical curve, whos lopsidedness of frequencies 
null hypothesis  states that any difference seen in two sets of numbers is simply due to chance and is not significant. P values of less than 0.05 are generally considered adequate for rejection 
t test  a technique for analyzing random samples of continuous variables from normally distributed populations 
chi squared test  "goodness of fit" test; used to evaluate the differences between experimental and observed data of discrete variables 
conclusion  a decision based on observations 
inference  reasoning from factual knowledge or evidence 
theory  in science , a well tested explanation of a natural phenomenon that unifies a broad range of observations with a high degree of confidence 
fact  knowledge or information based on real occurrences 
Created by:
is2903