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Planet Earth Words

science vocab

continental drift the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface.
deposition the process by wich sediment settles out of the water or wind that is carrying it.
earthquake the shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface.
erosion the destuctive process in which water or wind loosen and carry away fragments of rock.
fault a break in Earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other .
fossil a trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock.
geology the study of planet Earth.
igneous rock a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.
lava liquid magma that reaches the surface; also the rock formed when liquid lava hardens
magma the molten mixture of rock-forming substances,gases and water from the mantle
metamorphic rock a type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat,pressure,or chemical reactions
mineral a naturally-occurring inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and difinte chemical composition
Pangaea the name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continent
plate tectonics the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion driven by convection currents in the mantle
Richter scale a scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particular type of mechanical seismograph.
sedimentary rock a type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants animals and pressed and cemented together.
volcano a weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface.
glacier moving mass of ice that survives year to year, formed by the compacting of snow into névé and then into granular ice and set in motion outward and downward by the force of gravity and the stress of its accumulated mass.
hydrosphere the water on or surrounding the surface of the globe, including the water of the oceans and the water in the atmosphere.
humus organic matter that has decayed to a relatively stable, amorphous state. It is an important biological constituent of fertile soil.
lithosphere Crust, the upper layer of the Earth, is not always the same. Crust under the oceans is only about 5 km thick while continental crust can be up to 65 km thick. Also, ocean crust is made of denser minerals than continental crust.
permeable capable of being permeated.
soil the ground as producing vegetation or as cultivated for its crops: fertile soil. a country, land, or region: an act committed on American soil.
weathering 2. material used as a weather strip. Geol.the various mechanical and chemical processes that cause exposed rock to decompose
Created by: rmastro1