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Chapter 7 Evolution

Charles ___ was the first to compile persuasive evidence supporting evolution. Darwin
___ is genetic change in a population over time. Evolution
Darwin’s ___ transformed the natural sciences and serves as the basis of all biological research today theory
Darwin served as a ___ on the British naval ship the H.M S. Beagle. naturalist
The ___ sailed for five years from England to South America to make naval maps. Beagle
Darwin observed ___, collected samples of new plants and animals, and wrote aboutplaces and organisms few people had seen. nature
Darwin’s most unique findings were the diversity and uniqueness of organisms on the___ Islands, 1,000 km off the coast of South America. Galápagos
After comparing animals and animal fossils from different islands, he observed that theywere different from organisms on the ___ ___ mainland. South American
Darwin reasoned that some species might have originated in South America but had___ to be different. evolved
Darwin found enormous ___ on all of the Galápagos Islands. tortoises
Tortoises had ___ -____ shells and short necks where they ate low-growing plants. dome-shaped
Tortoises had saddle-shaped shells and ___ necks where they ate high-growing cactus. longer
Darwin concluded that the different tortoises descended from a common ancestral___ in South America, but each evolved to fit its unique environment. population
Darwin observed that finches on different islands had distinct ___ sizes and shapes. beak
He concluded that the finches, like the tortoises, had a common South American ancestor, but that they became different to suit the different island ___. habitats
___ ___ occurs when people breed plants and animals, such as vegetables or cows,to produce desired traits. Selective breeding
Selective breeding does not produce new ___; all dogs can still have offspring with their common ancestor, the wolf. species
Darwin’s theory of ___ ___ states that organisms with traits that allow them to survive in particular environments pass traits on that could lead to new species. natural selection
___ ___ is the creation of a diversity of traits through gamete formation. Genetic variation
A harmful ___ may cause an organism to die. trait
A beneficial trait will be passed on to thenext ___. generation
Genetic variation is necessary for ___ by natural selection to occur. evolution
Animals often produce more ___ than available resources can support. offspring
Thomas Malthus described this “struggle to survive” among the human ___. population
Darwin applied Malthus’ ideas to the ___ for survival among individuals in a species. competition
Organisms best prepared for living in specific habitats will survive and ___, and their offspring will be best able to survive and reproduce as well. reproduce
New species can develop if organisms with common ancestors become ___ and naturalselection causes them to differentiate in response to different environments. isolated
Inherited traits that increase an organism’s chance of surviving and reproducing in aparticular environment are called ___. adaptations
Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection includes four steps: ___, variation, inherited variation, and natural selection. overproduction
Populations evolve as favorable ___ in particular environments spread throughgenerations. traits
After 20 years, Darwin published "The ___ of Species by Natural Selection." Origin
Darwin developed the idea that all organisms have “descended with ___” from common ancestors. modification
Darwin believed that evolution by natural selection explains the ___ of modernorganisms. diversity
Organisms evolve ___ for specific environments through natural selection. adaptations
Adaptations are the result of a long process by which ___ are passed from one generation to another. traits
People may ___ the word adaptation, believing adaptations occur within ageneration and/or are intentional rather than naturally selected. misinterpret
Not all inherited traits are adaptations; negative traits may stay in a population if they are ___ to beneficial ones. linked
Positive traits may help an organism to ___; negative traits may cause it to die off. survive
Two ___ of adaptations are structural adaptations and behavioral adaptations. types
___ ___ are aspects of the physical body that help organisms survive and reproduce. Structural adaptations
___, or blending in with one’s surroundings, is a type of structural adaptation. Camouflage
Lizards change ___ to blend in with their surroundings. color
Young animals sometimes have ___ coloration when they are more vulnerable to predators. camouflage
___ is when one species looks or behaves like another. Mimicry
Some ___ organisms look like other dangerous or poisonous organisms to discourage predators. harmless
In another type of mimicry, a species fools its ___ by looking inviting or familiar. prey
___ ___, also called instincts, depend on the actions of an organism. Behavioral adaptations
Clapper Rails build their ___ so that they will rise and fall with wetland tides. nests
The male satin bower bird ___ its nest to attract a female mate. decorates
A species becomes ___ when all of the individuals of that species are wiped out. extinct
Several major events in the ___ of Earth have led to extinctions. history
Major ___ of extinction are habitat destruction, loss of genetic diversity, and introduction of exotic species. causes
Habitats for plants and animals ___ as humans develop and occupy more space. shrink
The fewer the individuals left of a species, the less ___ ___ in the population. genetic variation
A species is ___ if there are so few individuals that the lack of genetic diversity could lead to species extinction. threatened
The introduction of ___ species can lead to competition with native species. exotic
If the exotic species has few ___, it can out-compete native species and push themtoward extinction. predators
If ___ environmental change occurs where only small populations of a species exist, lack of genetic variation could lead to extinction relatively quickly. rapid
Created by: jnosik