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Midterm review for Science

Alfred Wegener German scientist proposed the theory of continental drift
continental drift the idea that the continents are moving or drifting that they drifted in the past and that they continue to drift
lithosphere top layer of the mantle;hard like the crust
3 types of plate boundaries fracture boundaries spreading boundaries colliding boundaries
fracture boundaries these boundaries slide past each other
spreading boundaries these boundaries move away from each other allowing magma to rise to the surface and cause volcanoes
colliding boundaries these boundaries move towards each other causing earthquakes or volcanoes
plates huge sections of the crust and lithosphere that flow or drift across the earth
crater is a steep sided depression at the top of a volcano. it can form during an eruption or if the rim of the volcano collapses
lava it is magma that reaches the surface
magma molten rock beneath the surface of the earth
fault a crack in the earth's crust
epicenter point on earth's surface directly over the focus
focus under ground point where the earthquake occurs
ridges mountains under the ocean
outer core inner most layer of the earth that scientists think is made of iron mixed with smaller amounts of smaller material
inner core inner most layer of earth mostly made of iron
convection currents movement caused by the rising of hot melted rock and the downward movement of that same rock as it cools
mantle middle layer it is the thickest layer and contains most of earth's mass
pangaea name of the super continent when all earth's land masses were group together
galileo a scientist who in the 1600s studied falling objects and the idea of gravity
issac newton in 1686 he published his book principia in it related forces in the motion of objects his book had the idea of many scientists together in a way people could understand them
first law of motion an object at rest stays at rest an object in motion remains in motion at a constant speed and in a straight line unless a unbalanced force is acted on it
2nd law of motion acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the net force applied
3rd law of motion when a force is applied to an object the objects exerts an equal force in the opposite direction
inertia is the tendency of an object at rest remains at rest or in constant motion unless a force acts on it
balanced force causes no change in motion even if an object is moving
unbalanced force can cause an object at rest to move it can also change the speed or direction of a moving object
friction force that resists movement of one surface past another; friction produces thermal energy
rolling friction resists movement of a rolling object
swliding friction resists movement of a sliding object
static friction resists a movement of an object begins to move
volume tells how much space an object takes up v= l*w*h
density measures the amount of matter in a given space D=M/V
mass the amount of matter that makes up an object
chemical change when a new substance is made or reacts with something else
physical change are observable and meaureable and do not change the matter
signs of chemical change when a new substance is formed
four states of matter solid liquid gas plasma
solid definite shape and volume particles are close together and have strong attraction to hold together
liquid definate volume no definate shape particles have less attraction than particles in a solid so they can move more freely (pour)
gas no definite shape take the shape of their container,no definite volume, particles have little attractions to each other and move in different directions to each other
plasma no dfinite shape or volume particles can conduct electricity ex. lighting, fire, welding arcs, flouresent and neon lights
are the melting point and freezing the same yes
what happens when the attraction of particles gets an increase in temperature they melt
Created by: Nat11