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OGT Science JHS a-z

OGT Science terms 164 cards a-z All Strands JHS KS

Abiotic The nonliving parts of the environment
Acceleration A change in speed (or velocity)
Acid A chemical that reacts easily with other substances and turns litmus paper red; less than 7 on the pH scale
Adaptation A feature of an organism that helps it meet a particular need in its natural habitat
Air massA large body of air that has the same characteristics throughout
Allele One of the forms of a gene that is found in pairs on a chromosome; Some alleles are dominant over others
Alloy A mixture of metals (and sometimes non-metals) which forms one metallic substance; Brass is an alloy of zinc and copper
Atom The smallest unit of a substance that has all of the properties of that substance
Atomic number The number of protons in an atom
Bacteria The kingdom of life which has no cell membrane or nucleus and is always unicellular
Base A chemical that reacts easily with other substances and turns litmus paper blue; greater than 7 on the pH scale
Biogeochemical cycle A way that a chemical element or molecule moves through both the biotic ("bio-") and abiotic ("geo-") parts of an ecosystem
Biome A region of the world that has a particular climate and unique plants and animals that live there
Biotic Anything that is alive
Bond An electrical force that links atoms together
Carbohydrate An essential chemical in all cells that is broken down to form sugars; glucose, sucrose, lactose, galactose
Carbon cycle The flow of carbon dioxide and oxygen throughout the Earth Cell differentiation
Cell division A process where one cell becomes more than one cell
Organelle Parts of the cell that perform specific functions
Cellular respiration The process where organisms get energy from organic molecules Ceramic
Chemical change A change in a substance that results in a completely different substance or substances and cannot be undone
Chemical property Describes the ability of a substance to react and form new substances Chemical reaction what occurs when one or more reactants combine to form one or more products
Chemosynthesis The creation of carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water that only happens in certain bacteria and fungi
Chloroplast Organelle in plants and some other organisms which is responsible for photosynthesis
Chromosome A thread-like strand of DNA or RNA in the cell
Cilia A hair-like organelle on the outside of a cell used in movement
Climate The weather in some location over a long period of time
Cloning The creation of genetically identical copies of some organism
Comet A small, frozen object outside the earth which travels around the sun in an ellipse Commensalism
Conduction The ability of a material to allow electricity or heat to pass through
Conserve To keep the same through a physical or chemical reaction; energy is conserved in this process
Constant Does not change
Convection The process where heat causes fluids (gas or liquid) to rise and bring heat up Covalent
Bond A type of chemical bond where electrons are shared between the atoms Cyclic Darwin
Deciduous forest A biome where the trees lose their leaves every year
Deduction A way of making scientific discoveries where general ideas are tested very specifically
Density The mass of a substance per unit volume
Dissipate To cause to separate and go in different directions
Dissolve To cause to go into a solution
Diversity The distribution and abundance of different plant and animal communities and species within a given area
DNA Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, which contains the genetic instructions for all forms of life
Ecosystem An ecosystem is an area consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms (biotic factors) working together with all of the non-living (abiotic) factors of the environment
Electricity Energy caused by the movement of electrons in a direction Electromagnetic radiation
Electromagnetic spectrum The range of all possible electromagnetic radiation Electromagnetic waves
Electron A negatively charged particle outside the nucleus of an atom
Element A substance composed of atoms with the identical atomic number; organized in the periodic table
Endothermic A chemical reaction that absorbs heat energy
Energy production Since energy cannot be created or destroyed, this refers to getting energy into a more usable form
Energy transfer Energy can be transferred from one place to another, but when this happens, energy is always lost
Energy The property of something's ability to do work
Equilibrium A system is at equilibrium when no change is occurring
Eukaryote A type of organism that has a true nucleus in its cell(s) EvidenceKnowledge on which to base an idea or belief
Evolution The events involved in the development over long periods of time of organisms
Exothermic A chemical reaction that gives off heat energy
Extrusive On the outside; when talking about rocks, extrusive rocks are formed on the surface of the Earth when lava cools
Family The classification group above genus
Faulting The creation of a crack in the surface of the Earth due to plate tectonics Fermentation
Fission The splitting of an atomic nucleus that releases energy
Flagella An organelle of some prokaryotes that allows for movement and resembles a tail
Fossil fuel An energy source (fuel) made from ancient plant or animal remains (fossils)
Frequency The amount of times something happens per second
Fungi The kingdom of living things that are eukaryotic and make their own energy; mushrooms, yeast, molds
Fusion The combination of two or more atomic nuclei that releases energy
Gametes The cells that are responsible for sexual reproduction; sperm, eggs
Gamma ray A form of electromagnetic radiation that has a very short wavelength and high frequency
Gene The basic unit of heredity, composed of DNA and found on chromosomes
Genetic variation Changes between organisms that is based on their DNA
Genotype The letters that represent the two alleles that make up a gene
Genus A classification of living things that is more specific than the species
Geological Referring to geology, the study of the Earth
Germ theory The theory that says that diseases come from small organisms (germs)
Habitat The environment that a species depends upon for its survival
Hardness A scale that tells how hard a particular rock is; harder rock scratches softer rock
Helium The second-lightest chemical element and found primarily in stars like the sun Heterozygous
Homeostasis Maintenance of a constant internal environment in an organism. Homozygous
Hybrid A combination of two different things; in genetics, this refers to the cross between a homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive individual to form heterozygous individuals; BB x bb = Bb
Hydrogen The lightest chemical element and the main fuel in stars like the sun Hypothesis
Igneous Rock that is formed from cooled magma (intrusive rock) or lava (extrusive rock)
Infrared A part of the electromagnetic spectrum that has less energy than visible light; it is the radiation that heat gives off
Inquiry The process where information is received by asking questions
Ion A charged particle that either has more or less electrons than protons
Ionic Bond A type of bond where ions are formed; electrons are not shared between the atoms as they are lost from one atom and attracted to the other
Isotope A version of an element having the same atomic number but a different atomic mass; this is due to an increase or decrease in the number of electrons
Kinetic energy The energy of movement
Lipid Refers to a group of fats that cannot be dissolved in water
Lithosphere The section of Earth that is composed of rock Living systemA group of organisms and their environment
Magnet A type of substance containing iron which also attracts iron (or steel) Malleable
Mass How much matter there is in an object
Matter Something that has mass and occupies space
Meiosis The process of cell division which produces four sex cells (gametes) from one cell
Mendel Gregor Mendel, the scientist who experimented with pea plants and discovered how genetic factors were passed down from parents to offspring
Metal A chemical element from the left-hand side of the periodic table that is malleable, ductile and conducts electricity
Metalloid A chemical element that has characteristics of both metals and nonmetals Metamorphic
Microwave A type of electromagnetic radiation that has low energy and is used primarily for communication (cell phones)
Mitochondria An organelle in all eukaryotic cells which is responsible for energy production
Mitosis The process of cell division which produces two body cells from one cell
Molecule The smallest unit of a substance that is the combination of one or more atoms
Mutation A change in the DNA of an organism; substitution, deletion, insertion Mutualism
Natural selection The process in which some organisms live and reproduce and others die before reproducing
Newton Sir Isaac Newton, a scientist who made hundreds of contributions to science like the law of gravity and his three major laws of physics; a Newton is a measure of force
Newton's 1st Law An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion unless acted upon by an outside force
Newton's 2nd Law The net force on an object is equal to the acceleration on that object times the mass of the object
Newton's 3rd Law Every reaction has an equal and opposite reaction
Nonmetal A chemical element from the right side of the periodic table that is brittle and does not conduct electricity well
Nuclear decay This happens when the nucleus of an atom breaks apart; usually, neutrons and protons leave the nucleus
Nuclear energy Energy that is produced by fission or fusion reactions
Nuclear reaction A reaction that happens in the nucleus of an atom; fission, fusion
Nucleic acid In the nucleus of a cell, there are two major types of nucleic acids: DNA and RNA
Nucleus 3In biology, this refers to the middle of a cell; in physical science, this refers to the center of an atom
Organic moleculeA molecule that contains carbon atoms bonded together
Organism A living thing that can live and reproduce independently
Ozone A form of oxygen that, in the atmosphere, protects living things from ultraviolet rays
Parasitism A relationship in which one organism lives in or on another organism and benefits from that relationship while the host organism is harmed by it
Peer review A method of selecting essays to be published where a group of peers review and make comments about the submitted essays
Periodic table An arrangement of chemical elements based on their atomic numbers and similarity of properties
pH scale Measures the strength of acids and bases; an acid has a number below 7, a base has a number above 7 and neutral materials have a pH of 7 (like water)
Phenotype The physical expression (what can be seen) of a genetic characteristic; brown eyes, black hair
Photosynthesis The process that happens in plants and some other organisms which takes the sun's energy and turns it into usable energy; 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light è C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2
Physical change A change in a substance that results in a different form of the substance and can be undone
Physical property A characteristic of a substance that can be observed; color, taste, texture, density
Physical science Any of the sciences, such as physics, chemistry, astronomy, and geology, that discusses the nature and properties of energy and nonliving matter
Plastic A material that can be molded and formed into objects and films
Plate tectonics The theory that the earth's surface is divided into a few large, thick plates that are constantly moving
Potential energy Stored energy; energy that is released and then becomes kinetic energy Predation
Prokaryote A type of living thing that is single-celled and has no true nucleus
Protein synthesis The creation of proteins in the cell from DNA
Protein A sequence of amino acids
Proton A positively-charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
Pure substance eA substance that has an identical chemical composition in every part
Radiation Energy that is transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles; when talking about heat, this is when heat spreads out from a central source
Radio wave A type of electromagnetic radiation that has very low energy and a very long wavelength (can be 10 – 20 feet long); used for cell phones and radios of all kinds
Radioactive substance A type of substance that releases neutrons and protons from its nucleus
Radiometric dating Determining the age of a rock or fossil based on the amount of one isotope compared with another isotope; ex: the amount of carbon-14 versus the amount of carbon-12 can determine how old something is because carbon-14 breaks down to carbon-12 over time
Recessive A genetic characteristic that is only expressed by the organism if there is no dominant characteristic present
Recycle To break down a material so that it can be reused instead of throwing it away Reproduction
Sea-floor spreading In geology, when oceanic plates move apart, the middle fills in with magma which cools and forms new sea floor
Semiconductor A type of material that allows electricity to flow with average resistance
Sex-linked trait A genetic characteristic that is present only on the X (or in some cases, the Y) chromosome and so behaves differently in males and females Sexual
Solid One of the basic states of matter which has a definite shape and volume
Species A very specific classification of organisms; all members of a species can mate together
Speed The amount of distance an object travels divided by the amount of time it takes; He traveled 30 mph
Stem cell A type of cell that can turn into any other type of cell
Superconductor A type of material that allows electricity to flow with no resistance
Sustainable agriculture Agriculture that is done so the land is used well and can continue on forever
Symbiosis A relationship between two or more organisms
Synthesis The combination of two or more things or concepts TechnologyThe application of science to solve a particular problem
Temperature The measurement of the average thermal energy of a system
Theory A well proven explanation of some part of the natural world
Thermal energy Heat
Total mass The combination of all of the masses of everything that is being considered Ultraviolet
Unbalanced force A force that is not balanced out by an opposite force; She was pushing against the wall, but when the wall fell it became an unbalanced force!
Unstable nuclei More than one nucleus (nuclei) that break down very quickly to smaller nuclei
Variation Something that has changed; in biology, this refers to the genetic difference between individuals
Velocity The distance that an object travels over a certain amount of time and in a certain direction; He traveled at 30 mph south
Virus A small particle that contains DNA or RNA and is able to reproduce only inside of a living cell
visible ligh A form of electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye (other organisms are capable of seeing some infrared and ultraviolet radiation)
Volume The amount of space an object takes up
Wave A movement up and down or back and forth
Wavelength Refers to the length of a single wave (back and forth); can be calculated from the crest of one wave to the crest of the next
Weight The combination of the mass and the force of gravity on an object
X-rays A form of electromagnetic radiation that has low energy and is used in medical equipment
Created by: JHS