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OGT Science JHS a-i

OGT Science terms 84 cards a - i all strands JHS ks

Abiotic The nonliving parts of the environment
Acceleration A change in speed (or velocity)
Acid A chemical that reacts easily with other substances and turns litmus paper red; less than 7 on the pH scale
Adaptation A feature of an organism that helps it meet a particular need in its natural habitat
Air massA large body of air that has the same characteristics throughout
Allele One of the forms of a gene that is found in pairs on a chromosome; Some alleles are dominant over others
Alloy A mixture of metals (and sometimes non-metals) which forms one metallic substance; Brass is an alloy of zinc and copper
Atom The smallest unit of a substance that has all of the properties of that substance
Atomic number The number of protons in an atom
Bacteria The kingdom of life which has no cell membrane or nucleus and is always unicellular
Base A chemical that reacts easily with other substances and turns litmus paper blue; greater than 7 on the pH scale
Biogeochemical cycle A way that a chemical element or molecule moves through both the biotic ("bio-") and abiotic ("geo-") parts of an ecosystem
Biome A region of the world that has a particular climate and unique plants and animals that live there
Biotic Anything that is alive
Bond An electrical force that links atoms together
Carbohydrate An essential chemical in all cells that is broken down to form sugars; glucose, sucrose, lactose, galactose
Carbon cycle The flow of carbon dioxide and oxygen throughout the Earth Cell differentiation
Cell division A process where one cell becomes more than one cell
Organelle Parts of the cell that perform specific functions
Cellular respiration The process where organisms get energy from organic molecules Ceramic
Chemical change A change in a substance that results in a completely different substance or substances and cannot be undone
Chemical property Describes the ability of a substance to react and form new substances Chemical reaction what occurs when one or more reactants combine to form one or more products
Chemosynthesis The creation of carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water that only happens in certain bacteria and fungi
Chloroplast Organelle in plants and some other organisms which is responsible for photosynthesis
Chromosome A thread-like strand of DNA or RNA in the cell
Cilia A hair-like organelle on the outside of a cell used in movement
Climate The weather in some location over a long period of time
Cloning The creation of genetically identical copies of some organism
Comet A small, frozen object outside the earth which travels around the sun in an ellipse Commensalism
Conduction The ability of a material to allow electricity or heat to pass through
Conserve To keep the same through a physical or chemical reaction; energy is conserved in this process
Constant Does not change
Convection The process where heat causes fluids (gas or liquid) to rise and bring heat up Covalent
Bond A type of chemical bond where electrons are shared between the atoms Cyclic Darwin
Deciduous forest A biome where the trees lose their leaves every year
Deduction A way of making scientific discoveries where general ideas are tested very specifically
Density The mass of a substance per unit volume
Dissipate To cause to separate and go in different directions
Dissolve To cause to go into a solution
Diversity The distribution and abundance of different plant and animal communities and species within a given area
DNA Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, which contains the genetic instructions for all forms of life
Ecosystem An ecosystem is an area consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms (biotic factors) working together with all of the non-living (abiotic) factors of the environment
Electricity Energy caused by the movement of electrons in a direction Electromagnetic radiation
Electromagnetic spectrum The range of all possible electromagnetic radiation Electromagnetic waves
Electron A negatively charged particle outside the nucleus of an atom
Element A substance composed of atoms with the identical atomic number; organized in the periodic table
Endothermic A chemical reaction that absorbs heat energy
Energy production Since energy cannot be created or destroyed, this refers to getting energy into a more usable form
Energy transfer Energy can be transferred from one place to another, but when this happens, energy is always lost
Energy The property of something's ability to do work
Equilibrium A system is at equilibrium when no change is occurring
Eukaryote A type of organism that has a true nucleus in its cell(s) EvidenceKnowledge on which to base an idea or belief
Evolution The events involved in the development over long periods of time of organisms
Exothermic A chemical reaction that gives off heat energy
Extrusive On the outside; when talking about rocks, extrusive rocks are formed on the surface of the Earth when lava cools
Family The classification group above genus
Faulting The creation of a crack in the surface of the Earth due to plate tectonics Fermentation
Fission The splitting of an atomic nucleus that releases energy
Flagella An organelle of some prokaryotes that allows for movement and resembles a tail
Fossil fuel An energy source (fuel) made from ancient plant or animal remains (fossils)
Frequency The amount of times something happens per second
Fungi The kingdom of living things that are eukaryotic and make their own energy; mushrooms, yeast, molds
Fusion The combination of two or more atomic nuclei that releases energy
Gametes The cells that are responsible for sexual reproduction; sperm, eggs
Gamma ray A form of electromagnetic radiation that has a very short wavelength and high frequency
Gene The basic unit of heredity, composed of DNA and found on chromosomes
Genetic variation Changes between organisms that is based on their DNA
Genotype The letters that represent the two alleles that make up a gene
Genus A classification of living things that is more specific than the species
Geological Referring to geology, the study of the Earth
Germ theory The theory that says that diseases come from small organisms (germs)
Habitat The environment that a species depends upon for its survival
Hardness A scale that tells how hard a particular rock is; harder rock scratches softer rock
Helium The second-lightest chemical element and found primarily in stars like the sun Heterozygous
Homeostasis Maintenance of a constant internal environment in an organism. Homozygous
Hybrid A combination of two different things; in genetics, this refers to the cross between a homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive individual to form heterozygous individuals; BB x bb = Bb
Hydrogen The lightest chemical element and the main fuel in stars like the sun Hypothesis
Igneous Rock that is formed from cooled magma (intrusive rock) or lava (extrusive rock)
Infrared A part of the electromagnetic spectrum that has less energy than visible light; it is the radiation that heat gives off
Inquiry The process where information is received by asking questions
Ion A charged particle that either has more or less electrons than protons
Ionic Bond A type of bond where ions are formed; electrons are not shared between the atoms as they are lost from one atom and attracted to the other
Isotope A version of an element having the same atomic number but a different atomic mass; this is due to an increase or decrease in the number of electrons
Created by: JHS