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Human Body03

Chapter 3 Terms

Cells the smallest unit, or the building blocks of all living things
Cells are mainly made of what 4 elements? carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen
Nucleus the control center of the cell containing genetic information
Nuclear Membrane also called nuclear envelope; a double membrane barrier around the nucleus
Nucleoli one or more small, darkstaining, round bodies, where ribosomes are assembled
Chromatin Loose network of bumpy threads scattered throughout the nucleus
Chromosomes chromatin threads that coil and condense to form dense, rodlike bodies
Plasma Membrane a fragile, transparent barrier that contains the cells contents and separates them from the surrounding environment. Also called cell membrane
Microvilli tiny fingerlike projections that greatly increase the cell's surface area for absorption
Tight Junctions impermeable junctions that bind cells together into leakproof sheets that prevent substances from passing through
Desmosomes anchoring junctions that prevent cells subjected to mechanical stress from being pulled apart
Gap Junctions neighboring cells are connected by connexons allowing communication between cells
Cytoplasm the cellular material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane
3 Major Elements of Cytoplasm... the cytosol, organelles, and inclusions
Cytosol semitransparent fluid that suspends the other elements
Organelles metabolic machinery of the cell, each carry out a specialized function
Inclusions not functioning units, are instead chemical substances that may or may not be present
Mitochondria powerhouse of the cell, much of cellular metabolism occurs here, provides ATP for cellular energy
Ribosomes tiny, dark bodies made of proteins, are sites of protein synthesis in the cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) a system of fluid-filled cisterns(tubules, or canals) that coil and twist through the cytoplasm
Rough ER contains ribosomes, building materials of cell membrane are formed
Smooth ER functions in cholesterol synthesis and breakdown, fat metabolism, and detoxification of drugs
Golgi Apparatus sorts, modifies, and packages proteins; contain secretory vessicles
Lysosomes contain powerful digestive enzymes to digest worn-out or nonusable cell structures and foreign substances in the cell
Peroxisomes membranous sacs containing powerful oxidase enzymes that use molecular oxygen to detoxify harmful or poisonous substances
Free Radicals highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons that can scramble the structure of proteins and nucleic acids
Cytoskeleton an elaborate network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm
Intermediate Filaments help form desmosomes and provide internal guy wires to resist pulling forces on the cell
Microfilaments involved in cell motility and in producing changes in cell shape
Microtubules determine the overall shape of a cell and the distribution of organelles
Centrioles rod-shaped bodies that lie at right angles to each other; internally they are made up of fine microtubules
Cilia whiplike celular extensions that move substances along the cell surface
Flagella propels the cell itself
Membrane Transport movement of materials into and out of the cell
Solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more components
Solvent the substance present in the largest amount in a solution
Solutes components or substances present in smaller amounts
Intracellular Fluid fluid within the cell
Interstitial Fluid fluid between cells
Selectively Permeable a barrier allows some substances to pass through it while excluding others
Passive Transport substances are transported across the membrane without any energy input from the cell
Active Transport the cell provides the metabolic energy (ATP) that drives the transport process
Diffusion particles tend to distribute themselves evenly within a solution. Movement is from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Simple Diffusion solutes are lipid-soluble materials or small enough to pass through the membrane pores
Osmosis the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane such as the plasma membrane
Facilitated Diffusion substances require a protein carrier for passive transport
Filtration the process in which water and solutes are forced through a membrane by fluid pressure or hydrostatic pressure
2 Common Forms of Active Transport are... solute pumping and bulk transport
Exocytosis moves substances out of the cell
Endocytosis extracellular substances are engolfed into the cell in a membranous vessicle
2 Types of Endocytosis are... phagocytosis and pinocytosis
Phagocytosis cell eating
Pinocytosis cell drinking
Cell Life Cycle a series of changes a cell goes through from the time it is formed until it divides
2 Major Periods of Cell Life Cycle Interphase and cell division
Interphase Cell grows and carries on metabolic processes; DNA is replicated
Cell Division Mitosis; to produce more cells for growth and repair processes
Stages of Mitosis Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis
Gene a DNA segment that carries the information for building one protein or polypeptide chain
Transfer RNA (tRNA) small cloverleaf shaped molecules
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) helps form the ribosomes, where proteins are built
Messenger RNA (mRNA) carry the "messege" containing instructions for protein synthesis from the DNA gene in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
Transcription the transfer of information from DNA's base sequence into the complementary base sequence of mRNA
Translation the language of nucleic acids is "translated" into the language of proteins
Tissues groups of cells that are similar in structure and function
4 Primary Tissue Types epithelium, connective, nervous, and muscular
Epithelium Tissue the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body
Epithelium Functions are... protection, absorption, filtration, and secretion
Epithelium Characteristics... cells fit closely together; tissue layer always has one free surface; the lower surface is bound by a basement membrane; it is avascular (no blood supply); regenerate easily if well nourished
Epithelium Classifications.. number of cell layers; simple - one layer; stratified - more than one layer
Epithelium Classification Shape: squamous-flattened, cuboidal-cube-shaped, columnar-column like
Simple Squamous single layer of flat cells; usually forms membranes; lines body cavities; lines lungs and capillaries
Simple Cuboidal single layer of cube like cells; common in glands and their ducts; forms walls of kidney tubules; covers the ovaries
Simple Columnar single layer of tall cells; often includes goblet cells which produce mucus; lines digestive tract
Pseudostratified Single layer, but may look like a double cell layer; Sometimes ciliated, such as in the respiratory tract; May function in absorption or secretion
Created by: ebalser03