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Session 2 Microbio11

Microbio -11- Genitourinary Infection

What are the common clinical features of UTIs Painful urination uncomplicated urethritis/cystitis Fever, Sepsis, and decreased kidney function
What is the most common cause of UTIs Escherichia Coli and other enterbacteria family
Why are UTIs more common in women than Men Female Urethra is shorter and closer to perianal area. Also using spermicides in birth control increases risk
Why does Spermicide increase UTI risks IT increases adherence of E. Coli to vaginal epithelial cells
What is Cystitis and what are the s/sx Infection of the Bladder Wall w/ increased frequency and urge to void and dysuria, Urine is malodorous and can be bloody, Bacteruria and WBCs in urine
What is Pyelonephritis infection of the kidney and renal pelvis most common follows a bladder infection.
What will you see in the urine w/ acute pyelonephritis WBCs, cellular casts, bacteria and protein,
What is the concern with pyelonephritis becoming chronic chronic pyelonephritis can result in gradual nephron loss and renal failure
What is urethritis inflammation of the urethra usually caused by bacteria
Inflammation of the glomeruli in the nephrons, causing the glomerular capillary network to become leaky allowing plasma protein and blood cells to be excreted in urine Glomerulonephritis
inflammation of the prostate gland generally an extension of bladder or urethra infection generally follows catheterization Prostatitis
Apart from bacteria what else can cause UTIs Yeasts such as candida
What are the virulence factors for UTI bacteria adherance to vaginal and uroepithelial cells cytotoxic, necrotizing factors hemolysin
What are the genes for UTI virulence linked to pathogenicity islands which are absent in normal fecal coliforms
What is a pahtogenicity island mobile genetic elements that exist in addition to plasmids that encode for fimbriae, pili, outermembrane proteins that aid in colonization and attachment
What determines the anatomical location where a pathogen will cause a UTI depends on adhesive properties of the pathogen what cells they can adhere to for colonization and infection
Gram - rods faculative anaerobe most common cause of UTIs E. Coli
WHat is the pathogenicity of E. Coli Adhere to mucosa via pili causing tissue damage and inflammation from endotoxin
What is the TX for E. Coli penicillin and ciprofloxacin
How do E. Coli get to the urinary tract to cause infection occurs after contamination of genital area with feces
Gram + Cocci nitrite negative nonhemolytic catalse positive coagulase negative resistant to novobiocin "honeymoon cystitis" Staph. Saprophyticus
UTI that occurs in sexually active women Staph. Saprophyticus
Gram - rods faculative anaerobes opportunistic pathogen gen transmitted via catheters enteric bacteria ureas positive and highly mobile Proteus Vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis same category as e. coli, salmonella, shigella enterobacter, serratia
This group used to be called group D streptococci GI tract normal flora causes endocarditis, cystitis, wound infection in other parts of the body Streptococcus Faecalis
What are the lancefield classifications of enterococcal bacteria based on based on antigenicity of C carbohydrate 13 different types A, B, D, and G are human pathogens
If streptococci don't have a C carbohydrate what are they non typeable viridans streptococci
What type of hemolysis does enterococcus faecalis cause on blood agar Gamma hemolysis
What is the tx for enterococcous faecalis amoxicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin
What is the most common site for nosocomial infections and most common cause urinary tract 60-80% follow catheterization
What do the following bacteria have incommon Escherichia coli Klebsiella Proteus Enterococcus sp. Pseudomonas cepacia ** Enterobacter Serratia marcescens ** Candida they are all catheter associated urinary tract infection agents
What is different about the starred bacteria from the others listed Escherichia coli Klebsiella Proteus Enterococcus sp. Pseudomonas cepacia ** Enterobacter Serratia marcescens ** Candida serratia marcescens and pseudomonas cepacia are not normal flora of the human GI tract there presence in a UTI following catheterization indicates exogenous source
HOw do you dx a UTI urine should be sterile presence of bacteria can be indicative of a UTI
how should you collect a urine specimen if you are looking for UTI need to get midstream clean catch since bacteria reside at opening of urethra they can contaminate the first part of urine stream
What does the Nitrite test of urine indicate if positive indicates bacteriuria because some bacteria convert nitrate in urine to nitrite
Why would leukocytes in urine be important Testing for leukocytes in urine detects both intact and lysed WBC these normally shouldn't be in the urine and indicate bacterial infection or failing kidney
Most widespread zoonoses that affects humans is a spirochete with hooked ends enters through mucous membranes and is excreted in the urine of infected animal Leptospirosis
What are the s/sx associated with infection w/ leptospirosis headache, fever, chills, severe muscle pain, redness of eyes from dilation of blood vessels
This infection generally occurs when normal acidity of the vagina is decreased. You generally get strong fishy odor from vagina and Clue Cells Bacterial Vaginosis
What are clue cells in bacterial vaginosis sloughed off epithelial cells covered with bacteria
What is some bacteria that causes bacterial vaginosis Gardnerella Vaginalis, Gardnerella Mobiluncus, Mycoplasma Hominus
How do you treat bacterial vaginosis clindamycin, metronidazole
What are the s/sx of vulvovaginal candidiasis itching, burning, and whitish vaginal discharge
Oportunistic mycoses of the vagina by candida sp. vulvovaginal candidiasis
Where is the source of candida sp in vulvovaginal candidiasis most commonly from the patient themselves can get some oxegenous transmission
how do you dx vulvovaginal candidiasis direct microscopic examination with KOH prep looking for budding yeasts and pseudohyphae
How do you differentiate between the different candida infections use a CHROMagar differentiation Albican=green Krusei=rose tropicalis=steel blue
what is the tx for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis azoles antimetabolites- flucytosine
Infection with what organism can cause toxic shock Strains of Staph Aureus that produce exotoxin casuing massive release of cytokines
What is associated with the use of tampons that abrade the vaginal wall toxic shock syndrome
What are the s/sx of toxic shock syndrome fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches, rash and possible severe hypotension and multisystem dysfunction
what can occur 1-2 weeks after onsent of toxic shock syndrome to the palms and soles you can get desquamation
what percent of TSS ends up being fatal 5%
What is the exotoxin of Staph Aureus that causes the TSS in menstural toxic shock and what toxin causes it in nonmenstrual tss menstrual TSS=TSST-1 toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 non-menstrual TSS= TSST1 or enterotoxin B or C
What is the toxic shock like syndrome caused by streptococcal pyogenes also called toxic strep
HOw do you dx strep toxic shock like syndrome you must isolate and indentify group A strep
What are the s/sx of strep toxic shock like syndrome hypotension renal impairment, coagulopathy, liver problems rash soft tissue necrosis
Bacterial STD caused by neisseria gonorrhoeae a gram negative diplococcus Gonorrhea
How do Gonorrhea attach to host cells Pili
What does the R plasmid in gonorrhea do makes them resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin and tetracycline
What allows N. Gonorrhoeae to attach to many different types of cells N. Gonorrhoeae can express many different types of pili that allow it to attach to many different types of cells
How does gonorrhoeae evade the immune system antigenic variation of the pili allow gonorrhea to escape the immune system
is there a vaccine for gonorhhea no
Apart from evading the immune system how does gonorrhea keep from being killed by the immune system produces an enzyme that breaks down IgA antibody
What are opa proteins in Gonorrhea proteins that increase adherence between gonococci increase adherence to eukaryotic cells- Macrophages attach to CD4 T lymphocytes and prevent their activation and proliferation aid in invasion of epithelial cells
What are the s/sx of gonorrhea in men urethritis, thick pus-containing discharge can get scar tissue that obstructs the urethra sterility can result along w/ prstatic abcesses
What are the s/sx of gonorrhea in women painful urination, vaginal discharge lead to spread in cervix and fallopian tubules pelvic inflamattory disease scar tissue can cause sterility and etopic pregnancy
How does gonorrhea get up into the fallopian tubules what problems can this cause hitches a ride on sperm by attaching to them this can cause scar tissue formation blocking the fallopian tube leading to ectopic pregnancy
What is opthalmia neonatorum and how is it combated newborn infection of the eyes by gonorrhea tx by giving 1% silver nitrate or .5% erythromycin treatment
What is it called when Gonorrhea gets into your joints disseminated gonococcal infection you get fever, rash and arthritis
WHat is the tx for honorrhea fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins
What is the STI that mimics gonorrhea with urethritis and testical and fallopian tube damage can also attach to sperm to cause pelvic inflammatory disease. Chlamydia Trachomatis
What is the type of chlamydial infection that causes lymph nodes in the groin to swell and drain pus leading to gross swelling of the genitalia lymphogranuloma venereum
What is the chronic eye disease caused by 4 strains of chlaymdia called that can cause blindness trachoma
This is a shperical obligate intracellular bacterium that in its infectious form is called an elementary body. Attaches to receptors of epithelial cells and gets taken into cell by endocytosis Chlamydia Trachomatis
What is the tx for chlamydia Azithromycin, tetracyclin, erythromycin
Chracterized in its first stage by painless red ulcer called chancre syphilis
What is the secondary stage of syphilis marked by Runny nose, water eyes, aches, sore throat, rash on palms and soles
What is the tertiary stage of syphilis marked by mental illness, blindness, stroke
What is the organism that causes syphilis T. Pallidum
What is the tx for syphilis penicillin
What does the chancre in syphilis indicate it shows the site of entrance of the syphilis organism T. Pallidum
Why do you need to be careful with the rash and mucous membrane sores that develop with syphilis they contain the organism and can potentially pass on infection
what can a hypersensitivity rxn to Treponema Pallidum cause can cause blindness
Can T. Pallidum be cultured in vitro no only invivo grown in rabit testicles
What type of technique do you use to identify T. Palldum in a sample use darkfield microscopy
How does T Pallidum cause miscarriage and still-born problems and congenital syphilis the bacteria can cross the placenta infecting the fetus
What is the tooth problem that can develop with infection from T Pallidum Hutchinson's teeth, teeth get notched and spread apart
This urogenital infection is makred by fluid filled blisters that form when a virus causes infected cells to lyse. Generally develops into painful ulcerations. HSV-2, Genital Herpes can also be HSV-1 but HSV-2 is more common in genital herpes
IF a mother has primary infection near delivery time what is the concern baby has 1 in 3 chance of getting infected with HSV virus which can result in death or permanent disability
What is the tx for HSV infections acyclovir, famiclovir not a cure but helps reduce severity and number of recurrences
What causes genital warts HPV virues
WHat is the most common sexually transmitted disease HPV
How many types of HPV are there and how many are associated with cervical cancer 100 types 15 associated with cervical cancer
Can you get genital warts from hand or plantar warts NO
What is the tx for genital warts laser removal or freezing with liquid nitrogen OUCHY and imiquimod immune modifying cream
Protozoal STD that can cause itching of the vulva and vagina along with a frothy yellowish green vaginal discharge and painful urination Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas Vaginalis
What would you expect to see upon cervical examination with patient who is infected with Trichomoniasis a strawberry cervix bright red
How does trichomonas appear when viewed by microsope in the discharge it has jerky motility, doesn't have mitochondria
If you find a child infected with trichomonas what should you suspect child sex abuse
what is the tx for trich metronidazole
Created by: smaxsmith