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Science Chap. 12

Heredity and Evolution

acquired traits traits that develop during an individual's lifetime and which are not inherited
artificial selection a process in the breeding of animals and in the cultivation of plants by which the breeder chooses to perpetuate only those forms having certain desirable inheritable characteristics.
artificially inseminated the injection of semen into the vagina or uterus by means of a syringe or the like rather than by coitus
breeds to produce (offspring); procreate; engender.
controlled breeding a type of artificial selection carried out to produce best traits of a breed
crossbreeding an animal or group of animals produced by hybridization; hybrid
evolution a product of such development; something evolved
extinct no longer in existence; that has ended or died out: an extinct species of fish.
fraternal twins one of a pair of twins, not necessarily resembling each other, or of the same sex, that develop from two separately fertilized ova
genetic engineering the development and application of scientific methods, procedures, and technologies that permit direct manipulation of genetic material in order to alter the hereditary traits of a cell, organism, or population
geographic isolation physical separation of populations
hybridization 1. to cause to produce hybrids; cross.
identical twins one of a pair of twins who develop from a single fertilized ovum and therefore have the same genotype, are of the same sex, and usually resemble each other closely
inbreeding the mating of closely related individuals, as cousins, sire-daughter, brother-sister, or self-fertilized plants, which tends to increase the number of individuals that are homozygous for a trait and therefore increases the appearance of recessive traits
inherited trait trait controlled by genes, passed from parent to offspring
mutant a new type of organism produced as the result of mutation
mutations a sudden departure from the parent type in one or more heritable characteristics, caused by a change in a gene or a chromosome.
natural selection the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures, as predators, changes in climate, or competition for food or mates, will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others of
sex chromosomes a chromosome, differing in shape or function from other chromosomes, that determines the sex of an individual
sex-linked traits located in a sex chromosome.
speciation the formation of new species as a result of geographic, physiological, anatomical, or behavioral factors that prevent previously interbreeding populations from breeding with each other.
Created by: daisy37311