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Compensatory models of bilingual education
Enrichment models of bilingual education
Structured English Immersion
Transitional Bilingual Education
Maintenance/Enrichment Bilingual Education (aka One-way Developmental Bilingual Education
Dual Language or Two-Way Immersion Programs
The Gradual Exit Plan (Krashen’s)
The Bilingual Education Act (Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act)
Lau v. Nichols
Plyler v. Doe
Proposition 227
Title III of No Child Left Behind (NCLB): “Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students”
The Florida Consent Decree
The Behaviorist Perspective of First Language Acquisition
The Innatist Perspective of First Language Acquisition
The Interactionist/Developmental Perspective of First Language Acquisition
Universal Grammar
Subtractive Bilingualism
The Critical Period Hypothesis
Child-Directed Speech
The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
The Monitor Hypothesis
The Natural Order Hypothesis
The Comprehensible Input Hypothesis (i + 1)
The Affective Filter Hypothesis
To acquire language subconsciously without overtly analyzing the forms of language.To move away from overanalyzing language into fluency. Automaticity
To place new information into existing structures and memory systems in order to create stronger retention. Meaningful Learning
To help students see clearly why they are doing something and its relevance to their long-term goals in English.To get learners to see the long-term rewards by pointing out the benefits of what they can do with English. The Anticipation of Reward
To design classroom tasks that take into account the intrinsic motives of students.To design classroom tasks which are interesting, useful and challenging for learners. In other words, self-rewarding for learners. Intrinsic Motivation
To call attention to the “methods” that the learner may employ to internalize and to perform in the second language.To consider learners’ different learning styles and preferences and help them develop strategies for learning and communication. Strategic Investment
To encourage learners to take initiative in the classroom and to continue their journey beyond the classroom.To suggest opportunities for students to use the second language outside of class Autonomy
To remember the fact that some learners may feel “strange” (if not stupid) using their new “identity” in the second language.To understand that students are likely to experience an identity crisis as they develop a “second self” in the second language Language Ego
To create the conditions in the classroom for students to “come out of their shells” and engage in communicative tasks without too much anxiety.To sequence activities in the classroom from easier to more difficult so that students can have a sense of ac Willingness to CommunicateThe Language-Culture Connection
remember that the majority of a learner’s errors in producing the second language stem from the learner’s belief that the target language operates like the native language.point out that native language interference may sometimes also facilitate the pro The Native Language Effect
allow learners to progress through a systematic or quasi-systematic developmental process towards full competence in the target language.give feedback to students considering mistakes not as “bad” but instead as good indicators of second language developm Interlanguage
The ultimate goal of a language classroom: To give due attention to fluency and not just accuracy, to authentic language and to students’ need to apply their learning to unrehearsed contexts in the real world.To make sure that students have opportunit Communicative Competence
Cultural Assimilation
Cultural Accomodation
Writing Systems
The Orthographic Depth Hypothesis
Created by: 683587960