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Semester 1 (Effects)

Ex. Constituent, Pharmacology, Contraindication, Human Trials

Aesculus hippocastanum (Horse Chestnut) Constit. Class: Flavanoids --- Pharm: Anti inflamm. inhibits white blood cell activation --- Contra: Warfarin --- RCT: Aescin has antioedemas property
Allium sativum (Garlic) Constit Class: Sulphur compounds --- Contra: Haemophilia; Warfarin; Asprin
Convallaria majalis (Lily of the Valley) Constit. Class: Saponin glycosides --- Pharm: Therapeutic dose near toxic dose, so start at 5ml, with Max daily dose 450mg; Cardioactive glycosides inhibit active ion transport; increased myocardial contractility --- Contra: Digoxin; Pregnancy
Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) Constit. Class: Flavanoids --- Pharm: Flavanoids decrease inflammation & oxidation over entire body --- Contra: Caution with anti-hypertensive drugs
Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo) Constit. Class: Terpenoids --- Pharm: Enhances tissue perfusion; Antioxidant; Increases tolerance to hypoxia --- Contra: Caution with Warfarin & Asprin --- RCT: 1998 showed efficacy in dementia
Inula helenium (Elecampane) Constit. Class: Sesquiterpene lactones --- Pharm: Mucilage has relaxing effect, while essential oils stimulate. So it soothese irritation & promotes expectoration --- Contra: Allergic reaction in some people
Mentha x piperita (Peppermint) Constit. Class: Volatile oils
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) Constit. Class: Phenolic acid: Rosemarinic acid --- Pharm: Rosemarinic acid may be a possible treatment for septic shock --- Contra: Pregnancy; Epilepsy
Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) Constit. Class: Volatile oil; Flavanoids --- Pharm: The antitussive, antispasmodic & expectorant actions, are associated with the volatile oils & flavanoids --- Contra: Thyme oil is toxic
Zingiber officinale (Ginger) Constit. Class: Oleoresin --- Pharm: Suppresses gastric acid secretion & reduces vomitting; Anti-ulcer --- Contr: Heartburn --- RCT: Trials show effectiveness against nausea & vomitting in pregnancy
Created by: klf