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# Dental Community

### Biostatistics, communication, ethical and legal principles

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Science of making statements about an entire population from a limited sample of that population. | Statistics |

Numeric characteristic of the sample; set value but unknown, often estimated | Parameter |

Study of a population includes: | Parameter and Statistic |

Gives you the estimate for the parameter; numeric characteristic of the sample; known value | Statistic |

Every Item/person has an equal and independent chance of being selected; be careful because it can still not be representative of the population | Simple Random Sample |

Carried out in subgroups (strata) to ensure that selections will be made from each level of the subgroup; every age, sex, race, socioeconomic status | Stratified Random Sample |

Divides the population into small groups then assesses every subject in the sampled clusters; good for low cost and not enouth time | Cluster Sampling |

Selecting items/people iin a block of predetermined size; biased, not random | Quota Sample |

Selected on the basis of convenience to the researcher; can't generalize to entire population | Convenience Sample |

Name the probability samples | Simple Random and Stratified Random Samples |

Name the Nonprobability samples | Cluster, Quota, and Convenience Samples |

Drawn when you are able to identify and have access to all members of the population of interest. | Probability Sample |

Use when access to entire population is not available; pros outweigh the risks of having a biased sample | Nonprobability Sample |

What helps select the appropriate statistical test? | Variables |

Event studied and expected to change whenever the independent variable is altered. | Dependent Variables |

May determine the outcome | Independent Variables |

Discrete categories do not have a quantitative relationship with each other (not rankable), lowest level of measurement - the naming level | Nominal |

Ordered categories; difference between the categories is not specified | Ordinal |

Scale is equally spaced; difference between two points is meaningful; no set zero | Interval |

Has meaning on a scale and a set zero | Ratio |

Name the categorical variables | Nominal and Ordinal |

Name the continuous variables: measured quantities | Interval and Ratio |

Two steps in data analysis? | Calculate descriptive statistics and calculate inferential statistics |

What are the techniques available for displaying data? | Frequency table, Histogram, and Bar charts |

Too much information may be lost | To few intervals |

May give too much detail, losing the ability to obtain an overall feel for the distribution | Too many Intervals |

Divide actual frequency by total number of observations and multiply by 100(% of subjects should = 100%) | Relative frequency distribution |

Used for continuous variables (interval and ratio) | Histogram |

No spaces between bars, height and width represents the frequency distribution of the data | Histogram |

Used for each interval category? | Bar Charts |

Height is determined by the relative frequency of occurrence? | Bar charts |

Characteristics of data found within the sample of individuals in whom the study was conducted | Descriptive statistics |

Types of descriptive statistics? | Measures of central tendency and measure of spread |

A set of values, attitudes, and behaviors that place the client's self interest before the self-interest of the professional | Professionalism |

Appropriate intervals are chosen & a number is computed for measurements falling within each interval; intervals = width; width of intervals determines the # of intervals | Frequency table |

Attempt to identify the middle of a distribution to provide one sample statistic that describes the character of an entire data set | measure of central tendency |

This says nothing about the variability among the data | Central tendency |

What are the 3 measures of central tendency? | mode, median, and mean |

The only measure of central tendency that makes sense for nominal categorical variables | Mode |

The most frequently occurring value in a set of observations | Mode |

The middle item of a data set, which will divide a data set arranged in order in half | Median |

EX: 0,1,2,3,3,4: 2+3=5 5/2=2.5 | Median |

Useful for describing the central tendency of ordinal categorical variables, as well as continous variables | Median |

Sum of observations divided by the munber of observations | Mean |

Makes sense with continous variables but may be used for ordinal variables | Mean |

The value that divides the area under the curve in half | Median |

The point at which the shape would balance if a pivot was placed under the curve | Mean |

If median is used then data is described by? | percentiles and quartiles |

Measures of spread depend on? | measure of central tendency |

Value in which "x" percent of numbers fall below it and the remainder fall above it | Percentile |

Divide data into four; lower is 25th and upper is the 75th | Quartile |

What is the square root of the variance? | Standard deviation |

Plays a central role in many statistics; used to calculate probabilities | Standard normal distribution |

If observations are close together the standard deviation will be? | Small |

If observation have the same value, the standard deviation will be? | Zero |

If observation are more spread out, the standard deviation may be influenced by? | Outliers |

How do you calculate variance? | Get mean; substract mean from observation(aka-deviation); square deviation; add all and divide by observations; total is the variance |

How to calculate standard deviation? | Square root of variance |

_____% of data fall within two standard deviations from the mean? | 95% |

_____% of data fall within one standard deviation from the mean? | 68% |

_____% of data fall between one and two standard deviations from the mean? | 27% |

_____% of all data fall within three standard deviations from the mean? | 99.7% |

What is the prupose of many studies? | To find the relationship between two variables |

If relationships between two variables are both catagorical: | Use a frequency table |

If relationships between two variables are both continious: | Scatter diagram |

Can determine the presence, strength, and direction of any straight-line pattern? | correlation coefficient |

2 X 2 table | cross tabulated data |

Formal methods to draw conclusions from data taking into account chance variation | Statistical inference |

Used when estimating a population parameter | Confidence intervals |

Statement of no relationship between an exposure and outcome | Null hypothesis |

Statement of effect | Alternative hypothesis |

Choosing the appropriate statistical test | Select one that will help weigh the evidence against the null hypothesis |

X2 (chi-square) test | Difference between the observed and expected; square the difference; divede by expected value |

Two sample groups drawn independently from a population and when only one or two independent variable are tested | One-sample t-test |

Two samples groups that are related and when only one independent variable is tested | Two-sample t-test |

Probability of a result being as far or further from what would be expected if the null were true | P-value |

If you reject the null when the null hypothesis is true | Type I error |

Fail to reject the null when the null is true | Type II error |

Provides framework for the dental hygienist's actions and decision making? | Code of ethics |

What is a critical professional responsibility? | To remain current in scientific and clinical knowledge so you can make evidence-based decisions. |

Concerns the standard of behavior and the concept of right and wrong | Ethics |

Is the discipline related to the ethical implications of biologic research methods and results? | Bioethics |

3 major ethical theories? | Utilitarian ethics, decontological ethics, and virtue ethics |

Meaning duty, suggest that an action is right when it satifies an obligation or duty? | Decontological ethics |

The rightness of an act is measured by the outcome? | Utilitarian ethics |

Based on the concept of the moral, virtuous, health care provider striving for excellence | Virtue ethics |

Providing benefits, preventing harm or evil, and promoting good | beneficence |

Respect for individuals | Autonomy |

Tellin the truth, honesty, and integrity | Veracity |

Fairness and equality | Justice |

Avoid harming the patient | Nonmaleficence |

Requirement to keep implied or explicit promises. Faithfulness. | Fidelity |

Obligates the provider to keep all info about a patient private and to not share it with 3rd parties. | Confidentiality |

Working in a manner that benefits all people | Common good |

Having a defined set of values and principles that allow a provider to demonstrate behaviors and attitudes that enable them to work effectively cross-culturally. | Cultural competence |

Awareness that cultural differences and similarities exist, without assigning values | Cultural sensitivity |

Familiarization with the selected cultural characteristics, history, values, belief systems, and behaviors of members of another ethnic group | Cultural knowledge |

When one duty or obligation is in conflict with another | Ethical dilemma |

Two areas of civil law? | tort law and contract law |

Usually the first section written, begins with a thorough search of the available literature on the topic | literature review |

Describes the details of how the study was performed or how the program was administrated | methodology |

Describes the analyses of the data collected or outcome of the evaluation prodecures, including the statistical test performed | results |

Provides the reader with the author's thoughts on what the results mean and the significance of the results ot the profession. | discussion |

A fluid portion of the paper | references |

Usually wirtten last because it is a concise summary of the entire paper. | abstract and title |

Developed to protect the public | Laws |

A rule of conduct or action prescribed or formally recognized as binding or enforced by a controlled authority | Law |

Described as the minimum standard required to keep a society functioning | Law |

Include criminal, administrative, constitutional, and international law | Public law |

Include tort, contract, property, inheritance, family and corporate law | Private or cival laws |

Focuses on the relationships between individuals or between individuals and the government | Civil law |

A violation of an agreement or promise between two persons to do or not to do something | Contract law |

Means that one side of the case must demonstrate a greater weight of evidence than the other side | Preponderance of evidence |

A legal term meaning something of value is bargained | Consideration |

An agreement that is explicitly stated, either orally or in writing | Expressed contract |

An agreement that is shown by inference through signs, inaction, or silence | Implied contract |

Is a civil violation in which an individual harms another's person(body), privacy, or property because of negligent or intentional actions | Tort law |

Damages over and above the award to compensate for harm | Punitive damages |

Deliberate and purposeful act that has a substantial certainty of untoward consequences from the act | intentional tort |

When a dental provider, in the course of treatment, exceeds the consent provided by a patient | Technical battery |

Threat of bodily harm | Assault |

A false statement or deceptive practice with intent to injure someone | Deceit |

Wrongful act of injuring someone's reputation by making false statements in writing(libel) or verbally (slander) | Defamation of character |

Described as dishonest or deceitful practices in depriving or attempting to deprive another of his or her rights | Fraud |

Injury or interference with the property of another | Trespass |

An action or conduct based on a legal obligation | Duty |

Level of care expected of a reasonable and prudent practitioner in the same or similar circumstances | Standard of care |

Act of providing information and assuring that the patient understands the treatment risks and advantages, options available, and the nature of the disease or problem | Informed consent |

Protects the provider from subsequent allegations of negligence | Informed refusal |

Body of law created by administrative agencies in the form of rules, regulations, orders and decisions | Administrative law |

Who enacts the state's dental practice act | Legislative branch of government |

Dentist needs to be on the premises | Direct supervision |

An emerging practice model in which dental hygienist strive to prevent and treat oral disease through the provision of educational, assessment, preventive, clinical, and other therapeutic services | Collaborative practice |

The length of time during which a legal action must be taken and can be a state law or part of a statute | Statute of limitations |

Created by:
jenbug