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Tooth Morphology

QuestionAnswer
Primate Spaces interproximal spaces between the primary teeth, and is necessary for the proper alignment of the future permanent dentition
Bruxism Grinding
Cervical Ridge present on both the labial and lingual surfaces of anterior teeth and on buccal surfaces of the molars.
Roots (primary teeth) narrower and longer than the crown length.
Resorption The process that occurs when the roots of deciduous teeth dissolve or give way for the forming, erupting permanent teeth.
Pulp Cavity(primary teeth) pulp chambers and pulp horns are relatively large in proportion to those of the permanent teeth, especially the the mesial pulp horns.
Primary dentition functions in aesthetics, mastication, and speech for a child for about 5 to 11 1/2 years. These teeth also serve to hold the eruption space for the succedaneous permanent teeth, which will replace the primary.
Nighttime use of baby bottle or sugar on a pacifier Considered in a child with extensive acute caries of the primary teeth, which is generally called "baby bottle mouth"
Maxillary Central Incisor (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 7-8 #'s: 8 & 9
Maxillary Lateral Incisor (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 8-9 #'s: 7 & 10
Maxillary Centrals (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 11-12 #'s: 6 & 11
Maxillary 1st Premolars (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 10-11 #'s: 5 & 12
Maxillary 2nd Premolars (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 10-12 #'s: 4 & 13
Maxillary 1st molars (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 6-7 #'s: 3 & 14
Maxillary 2nd molars (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 12-13 #'s: 2 & 15
Maxillary 3rd molars (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 17-12 #'s: 1 & 16
Mandibular Central (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 6-7 #'s: 24 & 25
Mandibular Lateral (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 7-8 #'s: 23 & 26
Mandibular Canine (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 9-10 #'s: 22 & 27
Mandibular 1st Premolar (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 10-12 #'s: 21 & 28
Mandibular 2nd Premolar (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 11-12 #'s: 20 & 29
Mandibular 1st Molar (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 9-10 #'s: 19 & 30
Mandibular 2nd Molar (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 14-15 #'s: 18 & 31
Mandibular 3rd Molar (Permanent, eruption time and #'s) Eruption: 18-25 #'s: 17 & 32
Cingulum a bulge or prominence of enamel found on the cervical third of the lingual surface of an anterior tooth
Cusp a pronounced evaluation on the occlusal surface of a tooth terminating in a conical or rounded surface.
Cusp of Carabelli the "fifth cusp located on the lingual surface of many maxillary fist molars.
Fissure a fault occurring along a developmental groove caused by incomplete or imperfect joining of the lobes. When two fissures cross they form a pit.
Fossa a rounded or angular depression of varying size on the surface of a tooth.
Lingual Fossa a broad, shallow depression on the lingual surface of an incisor or cuspid.
Central fossa (maxillary molars) a relatively broad, deep angular valley in the central portion of the occlusal surface of a mandibular molar.
Triangular Fossa a comparatively shallow pyramid-shaped depression on the occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth, located just within the confines of the mesial and/or distal marginal ridges.
Groove a small linear depression on the surface of a tooth.
Developmental groove a groove formed by the union of two loves during developmental of the crown.
Supplemental groove an indistinct linear depression, irregular in extent and direction, which does not demarcate major divisional portions of a tooth. These often give the occlusal surface a wrinkled appearance.
Incisal Edge formed by the junction of the lingual surfuces of an anterior tooth. This edge does not exist until occlusal wear has created a surface linguoincisally.
Lobe a developmental segment of the tooth. As lobes develop they coalesce to form a single unit.
Mamelon a rounded prominence on the incisal ridge of a newly erupted incisor.
Ridge a linear elevation on the surface of a tooth.
Cusp Ridge an elevation which extends in a mesial and distal direction from the cusp tip. Cusp ridges form the buccal and lingual margins of the occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth.
Incisal Ridge the incisal portion of a newly erupted anterior tooth
Marginal Ridges elevated crests or rounded folds of enamel which form the mesial and distal margins of the occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth and the lingual surfaces of the anterior teeth.
Oblique Ridges elevated prominences on the occlusal surfaces of a maxillary molar extending obliquely from the tips of the mesiolingual cusp to the distobuccal cusp.
Triangular Ridges prominent elevations, triangular in cross section, which extend from the tip of a cusp toward the central portion of hte occlusal surface of a tooth. Named for the tooth for the cusp to which they belong.
Transverse Ridges made up of the triangular ridges of a buccal and lingual cusp which join to form a more or less continuous elevation extending transversely across the occlusal surface of a posterior tooth.
Sulcus an elongated valley in the surface of a tooth formed by the inclines of adjacent cusps or ridges which meet at an angle.
Functions of Primary Dentition -Mastication of food -Reserve space for permanent dentition -Support for clear speech
Tooth Emergence (Birth) Birth up to 6 to 8 months no teeth visible in mouth
Tooth Emergence (Begin to erupt) From 6 to 8 months through 2 to 2 1/2 years all primary teeth should be visible in mouth.
Tooth alignment in primary dentition Interproximal spacing is important between the primary teeth
Mesial Drift Tendency for more posterior teeth to shift forward with the absence of a proximal contact.
Maxillary Central widest tooth mesial-distally of any anterior tooth. most prominent tooth in permanent dentition one pulp canal with 3 pulp horns common location for supernumerary
Maxillary Lateral Greatest variation in form of any permanent tooth except for 8s. Most frequently feature a platogingival groove which is a site periodontitus.
Maxillary Centrals Longest tooth in maxillary arch Carries usually does not occur-shape is self-cleansing. Functions as the corner stones of the mouth, giving support to facial muscles and helping maintain vertical dimension.
Maxillary 1st Premolar Is the only premolar that may have 3 roots- buccal root will bifurcate at apical 1/3.
Maxillary 2nd Premolar Both cusps are nearly equal in size.
Maxillary 1st Molar Largest tooth overall with largest crown Cusp of Carabelli Most periodontally fragile tooth May exibit buccal tilt
Maxillary 2nd Molar
Maxillary 3rd Molar No standard form and often appears as developmental anomaly. Occludes with only 1 opposing tooth Instrumentation difficult Oral Hygiene difficult May remain impacted due to insufficient arch growth
Primary Molars -Occlusal table appears more restricted buccal lingually appear more narrow than wider from back to front more notable on mandibular. -roots flared beyond crown outline to allow space for developing permanent crown.
Primary Maxillary 1st molar 3 rooted,palatal(lingual) root longest
Primary Maxillary 2nd molar may exhibit a cusp of carabelli
Fused Roots roots with no seperation
Fusion the joining of 2 tooth buds to form 1 large tooth. Usually exhibits a large crown with a single root containing 2 canals
Concrescense 2 fully formed teeth that have become joined at the cementum.
Accessory Root more that normal number of roots.
Hypercementosis Excessive cementum formation after a tooth has erupted.Generally located on t he apical 1/3 to 1/2 of the tooth root.
Cervical Enamel Project (CEP) Enamel projection that extends from the cervical are apically.
Grade I CEP enamel slight extension toward the furcation
Grade II CEP enamel that extends to near the area of root trunk separation.
Grade III CEP enamel that extends into area of root trunk separation or furca *Periodontal fibers will not attach to enamel. These areas may become site of localized periodontal disease.
Enamel Pearl Droplet or "Pearl" shaped enamel formation found on the root surface. Most frequently seen in the maxillary molars. *Periodontal fibers will not attach to enamel. These areas may also become sites of localized periodontal disease.
Dilaceration A sharp bend or curvature in the root surface. Caused by root displacement during tooth development.
Ankylosed Tooth Abnormal calcification of the periodontal ligament resulting in abnormal fixation of a tooth.
Grade I Involvement Pocket formation into the fluting of the furca,but the interradicular bone is intact. No gross or radiographic evidence of bone loss.
Grade II Involvement Interradicular bone is destroyed on one or more aspects of the furcation,but a portion of alveolar bone and periodontal ligament remains intact.
Grade III Involvement The furcation is occluded by gingiva but the interradicular bone had been destroyed so that a probe can be passed through from one surface to the other.
Grade IV Involvement The periodontium is destroyed to such a degree that the furcation is open and exposed and clinically visible.
Static Oclussion can be efficiently observed in occluded study casts and seen directly in the oral cavity when the lips and cheeks are retracted
Functional Oclussion consists of all contacts during chewing, swallowing, or other normal action
Mesognathic
Retrognathic
Prognathic
Labioversion A tooth that has assumed a position labial to normal.
Linguoversion Position lingual to normal.
Buccoversion Position buccal to normal.
Supraversion Elongated above the line of occlusion.
Torsiversion Turned or rotated.
Infraversion Depressed below the line of occlusion, for example, primary tooth that is submerged or ankylosed.
Class I or Neutroclusion Crowded maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth.Protruded or retruded maxillary incisors.Anterior crossbite.Posterior crossbite.Mesial drift of molars resulting from premature loss of teeth.
Class II or Distoclusion Description - Mandibular teeth posterior to normal position in their relation to the maxillary teeth.Facial Profile - Retrognathic; maxilla protrudes;mandible appears retruded or weak.
Class II or Distoclusion Class II, Division 1 The mandible is retruded and all maxillary incisors are protruded.Conditions that frequently occur in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion: Deep overbite, excessive overjet, abnormal muscle function (lips), short mandible, or short upper lip.
Class II or Distoclusion Class II, Division 2 The mandible is retruded, and one or more maxillary incisors are retruded.Conditions that frequently occur in Division 2: Maxillary lateral incisors protrude while both central incisors retrude, crowded maxillary anterior teeth, or deep overbite.
Class III or Mesioclusion Prognathic,The buccal groove of the mandibular first permanent molar is mesial to the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first permanent molar by at least the width of a premolar.
Primate Spaces* Mandibular: Between mandibular canine and first molar (Figure 16-13A).Maxillary: Between maxillary lateral incisor and canine
Without Primate Spaces. Closed arches.
Terminal step The distal surface of the mandibular primary molar is mesial to that of the maxillary, thereby forming a mesial step First permanent molar erupts directly into proper occlusion
Terminal Plane ? The distal surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular primary molars are on the same vertical plane. First permanent molars erupt end to end. mandibular primate space, early mesial shift of primary molars into the primate space occurs, and the permanent man
Parafunctional contacts are those made outside the normal range of function.They result from occlusal habits and neuroses.They are potentially injurious to the periodontal supporting structures, but only in the presence of dental biofilm and inflammatory factors.They create
Functional contacts are the normal contacts that are made between the maxillary teeth and the mandibular teeth during chewing and swallowing. Each contact is momentary, so the total contact time is only a few minutes each day.
Pathologic Migration With destruction of the supporting structures of a tooth as a result of periodontal infection, and with a force to move a tooth weakened by disease and bone loss, migration of the tooth can result.Pathologic migration occurs when disease is present.
Trauma from Occlusion Periodontal tissue injury caused by repeated occlusal forces that exceed the physiologic limits of tissue tolerance
Primary trauma Excessive occlusal force is exerted on a tooth with normal bone support.
Secondary trauma Excessive occlusal force is exerted on a tooth with bone loss and inadequate alveolar bone support.The ability of the tooth to withstand occlusal forces is impaired. A tooth has lost the support of the surrounding bone.
Trauma changes in function tooth not disease.
Clinical Findings That May Occur in Trauma from Occlusion 1 Tooth mobility. Fremitus.Sensitivity of teeth to pressure and/or percussion. Pathologic migration.Wear facets or atypical incisal or
Clinical Findings That May Occur in Trauma from Occlusion 2 occlusal wear.Open contacts related to food impaction.Neuromuscular disturbances in the muscles of mastication. In severe cases, muscle spasm can occur.Temporomandibular joint symptoms.
Created by: Griselda Perez Griselda Perez on 2009-10-13



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