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Miller ch. 3&4

Living In The Environment 16th Ed. Ch. 3&4 vocab.

biomass the dry weight of all organic matter contained in its organisms.
carnivores animal that feeds on other animals.
community consists of all the populations of different species that live in a particular place
consumers cannot produce the nutrients they need through photosynthesis or other processes and must obtain their nutrients by feeding on other organisms (producers or other consumers) or their remains.
decomposers Organism that digests parts of dead organisms.
herbivores plant-eating organism.
habitat The place where a population or an individual organism normally lives is its habitat.
omnivores such as pigs, foxes, cockroaches, and humans, play dual roles by feeding on both plants and animals.
population is a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same place at the same time.
primary consumers animals such as rabbits, grasshoppers, deer, and zooplankton that eat producers, mostly by feeding on green plants.
producers make the nutrients they need from compounds and energy obtained from their environment.
secondary consumers organism that feeds only on primary consumers
species For a group of sexually reproducing organisms, a species is a set of individuals that can mate and produce fertile offspring.
trophic level Ecologists assign every organism in an ecosystem to a feeding level, or trophic level, depending on its source of food or nutrients.
adaptation, or adaptive trait any heritable trait that enables an individual organism to survive through natural selection and to reproduce more than other individuals under prevailing environmental conditions.
background extinction Throughout most of history, species have disappeared at a low rate, called background extinction.
biological evolution the process whereby earth’s life changes over time through changes in the genes of populations.
differential reproduction Phenomenon in which individuals with adaptive genetic traits produce more living offspring than do individuals without such traits.
ecological niche total way of life or role of a species in an ecosystem.
endemic species Species that are found in only one area are called endemic species and are especially vulnerable to extinction.
extinction Another process affecting the number and types of species on the earth is extinction, in which an entire species ceases to exist.
foundation species species that plays a major role in shaping a community by creating and enhancing a habitat that benefits other species
generalist species species with a broad ecological niche.
geographic isolation occurs when different groups of the same population of a species become physically isolated from one another for long periods.
indicator species Species that provide early warnings of damage to a community or an ecosystem are called indicator species.
keystone species species that play roles affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem.
mass extinction is a significant rise in extinction rates above the background level.
mutations random change in DNA molecules making up genes that can alter anatomy, physiology, or behavior in offspring.
native species those species that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem.
natural selection Process by which a particular beneficial gene is reproduced in succeeding generations more than other genes.
nonnative species Other species that migrate into or are deliberately or accidentally introduced into an ecosystem are called nonnative species,
reproductive isolation mutation and change by natural selection operate independently in the gene pools of geographically isolated populations.
specialist species Species with a narrow ecological niche.
speciation Under certain circumstances, natural selection can lead to an entirely new species. In this process two species arise from one.
species diversity number of different species combined with the relative abundance of individuals within each of those species in a given area.
Created by: sciencedad131