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Life Science: Chapter 4: Genetics

The passing of traits from parents to offspring is called ___. heredity
___ ___ is the idea that offspring are a blend of genetic material from both parents. Blending inheritance
Before the work of ___ ___ began the study of modern genetics, people believed that heredity worked by blended inheritance. Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel was the first person to record evidence that traits of organisms are determined by factors passed from parents to ___. offspring
___ is the study of how traits of organisms are passed from parents to offspring. Genetics
Mendel researched genetics by using ___ plants, which are easy to grow and reproducequickly. pea
Mendel ___ fertilization in the pea plants he used in his experiments. controlled
Mendel’s ___ methods were unique and helped him to see patterns of inheritance experimental
Mendel used plants that were ___-___for the traits he studied. true-breeding
He recorded the inheritance of traits for many ___ of pea plants. generations
Mendel used a ___ approach to his research. He used many plants and recordedlarge amounts of numerical ___. mathematical, data
Mendel concluded that two ___ control each inherited trait and that when organismsreproduce, each gamete contributes one factor for each trait. factors
A genetic factor that blocks the expression of another genetic factor is a ___ factor. dominant
A ___ factor is a genetic factor that is not expressed in the presence of a dominant factor recessive
Mendel formed two important hypotheses that allowed him to predict how ___ areinherited. traits
Because his hypotheses have not been proved untrue by any later research, they are now called Mendel’s ___ ___ ___. laws of inheritance
The ___ ___ ___ states that the two factors for each trait separate from each other during meiosis when gametes are formed. law of segregation
Mendel’s ___ ___ ___ ___ says that the factors for one trait separateindependently of how factors for other traits separate, and that the gametes have all possible combinations of traits. law of independent assortment
Though scientists have discovered ___ and how cells reproduce since his time, Mendel’s laws remain true today. DNA
A section of DNA that has information about a specific trait of an organism is called a ___. gene
The information a particular gene contains about a trait can be ___ for differentstrands of DNA. different
Every person has a ___ for eye color, but not every person has the same color eyes. gene
Each form of a gene that carries different information is called an ___. Allele is the modern term for Mendel’s ___. allele, factors
All observable traits of an organism make up the organism’s ___. An organism’sphenotype includes its color, its size, how its organs function, and much more. phenotype
The combination of specific alleles that make up an organism is that organism’s ___. genotype
The term ___ can refer to one gene, to a combination of genes that determines aparticular trait, or even to all the genes of an organism. genotype
If a eukaryotic organism has two alleles of a gene that store the same information, itsgenotype is called ___. homozygous
A eukaryotic organism has a ___ genotype if it has two alleles of a gene that store different information. heterozygous
Mendel’s law of ___ can be explained using our current understanding of DNA andreproduction. segregation
After meiosis I, each set of chromatids that makes up a replicated chromosome separatesinto different gametes during ___ ___. meiosis II
In meiosis, each gamete receives only one ___. allele
Mendel’s law of independent assortment can be explained by the movement of ___during meiosis. chromosomes
In meiosis, each daughter cell receives one chromosome from each parent cell’s pair of___ chromosomes. homologous
Each chromosome separates ___ from all the other chromosomes. independently
When two homologous pairs of chromosomes recombine during reproduction, there arefour possible ___ combinations. allele
Created by: jnosik