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Law 3

Causes of Crime

Explanation of crimes biological, psychological, sociological, integration, typologies
Biological explanation belief that the body is responsible for a person's behavior. People act rationally when deciding whether or not to commit a crime.
Essays on Crimes and Punishments Written by Cesare Beccaria. The man is driven by social contract. Individuals have free will and a rational manner which leads each person to look out for his own best interests. Call for humane punishment, equality in sentencing, ban torture and capital
Swift associative punishment the motivation to obey the laws.
Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation written by Jeremy Bentham - explained his ideas of psychological hedonism. Personal pleasure was people's goal. If pleasure outweigh the pain, the person would commit a crime.
L'uomo Delinquente (Criminal Man) by Cesare Lombroso. Criminal have outstanding ears, abundant hair, sparse beard, big frontal sinuses and jaw, a square and protruding chin, board cheek bones.
Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System in General, and the Brain in Particular by Franz Joseph Gall. believed that the brain or how it was formed was the key to a person's behavior.
Crainoscopy - later known as phrenology by Franz Joseph Gall. believed that certain regions fo the brain control various aspects of an people personality, morality, mental faculties. The outline of the skull reflect the interior shape of the brain
The Asymmetrical Character of Human Evolution by Earnest A. Hooton. criminals are criminals because they were biologically inferior.
William Sheldon conducted a study to show 3 basic body types: 1) endomorphs 2) ectomorphs 3) mesomorphs
endomorphs fat with short limbs and soft smooth skin
ectomorphs lean, delicate body; small; fine hair
mesomorphs large muscles and bones, trunk, and hands.
Sheldon said most of the criminals were from what body type mesomorph, because they behave agressively and get in trouble with the law more often.
The last pair of a peron's 23 pairs of chromosomes determines what? the sex of the individual
XYY Chromosome Syndrome a male with XYY tend to be taller than normal and have anti-social behavior
Moyer believe that some genes may create brain structures leading to agression and hostility
Physological explanation explanations are based on the mind and its mental process
Sigmund Freud believe there are 3 mental process: id, ego, and super-ego.
id source of drives to please needs such as food, sex, power, etc.
super-ego is like the person's conscience
ego integrating process which tries to balance the id and the super-ego
Freud believed that there are 3 interactions between id, ego, and super-ego which lead an individual to commit a crime 1) is not taught or learned what is right or wrong (failure to develop super-ego) 2) he is unable to control his desire for a specific desire, he commits a crime to satisfy the desire
The 3rd believe of interaction 3) people have extreme mental conflict which produce guilty, to rid himself of the guilt, he commit a criminal act so that he will be punished
Harrison G. Gough define criminals as psychopaths, saying they have too much concern for gratification and no cocern for the rights of others. They have impulsive behavior, always blaming others for their mistakes, having poor planning and judgement skills
Gough believed that psychopahts are a result of broken homes, where there is not a strong male figure in the home, inconsistent discipline, and child abuse
Court will not conduct a trial if the accused is unable to understand the trial process. Such individuals are committed to an institution for the treatment of their mental disorder until they are sane
Inside the Criminal Mind by Stanton E. Samenow. crime reside within the person and is caused by the way he thinks, not by his environment. Criminal think differently from responsible people
Sociological explanation based on the assuption that criminal activity can be produced or stimulated by a person's environment, his interaction with people and groups.
Sociology examines how and why an individual develops those beliefs, attitudes, and values
Emile Durkheim (father of sociology) point out that for some individuals, crime may be normal. Normalessness and absence of social values can cause people to committ crimes
Frank Tannenbaum develop the labeling theory. Stated that people tend to respond to the labels that they are given.
Causes of Delinquency by Travis Hirschi. If peole have a weakend bown with society and lack of commitment ot its rules, criminal activities may happen.
4 different bond with society (by Travis Hirschi) 1) attachment 2) commitment 3) involvement 4) belief
Principles of Criminology by Edwin Sutherland. proposed the theory of differential association. Criminal behavior is learned. Sources accept criminal behavior as a valid alternative.
Strain Theory by Robert K. Merton. everybody is reaching for goals of success. Some frustrated with lack of success, consider options like criminal activity.
Crime and Human Nature by James Q. Wilson and Richard J. Herrnstein. in order to establish the cause of crime, one must understand human nature. Inherited trais combined with the environment produce someone who is susceptible to criminal behavior.
Wilson and Herrnstien said that most important factor in a future criminal from a life of crime is a family life. If the family is strong, the child is able to counter the negative factors to become a criminal
Typologies explanation base on patterns of criminal characteristics
Society, Crime and Criminal Careers by Don Gibbons. list the typologies like what a criminal might look like, how they would commit a crime, etc. Types of typologies are Theif, Heavy, Amateur Shoplifter, Joyrider, Psycholpathic Assaultists, Rapist, Embezzler
Created by: Tiffastic