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Robespierre Jacobin leader; helped launch the Reign of Terror. French revolutionary, member of the National Assembly. Lost dominating authority and was overthrown and executed; Considered a bloodthirsty dictator - valued for his social ideals of reducing inequality.
Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity Slogan of the French Revolution (1789). The proclamation of modern radical theologies. It appears in the "Declaration of the Rights of Man..." drafted after the French Revolution. May imply that these rights are still only for Men [fraternity].
Republic of Virtue (1793-1794) The state set up under Robespierre during the Reign of Terror. Refers to his ideological and spiritual goals; Christianity replaced with different "cults"
sans culottes The people of the Third Estate; "without pants"- did not wear the breeches of culottes associated with the aristocracy or upper class. Shop owners, trades people, artisans, factory workers; supporters of Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety Set up by the National Convention in July 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793-4). Performed executions on those believed to be supporters if the monarchy
Reign of Terror Period of the FR marked by conflict between political factions & mass executions; violence
Touissant L'Ouverture (1743-1803) A self-educated slave with no military training; drove Napoleon out of Haiti and led his country to independence. aka "Black Napoleon" defeated the invading army by utilizing guerrilla warfare and yellow fever
Thermidorian Reaction Revolt against the Reign of Terror after the Committee of Public Safety votes to execute several leaders; i.e. Robespierre
Industrial Time Discipline Living by the clock; factories dictating when to wake, work, eat, and sleep. Labor turns into a commodity; time= money. Day no longer regulated by Nature
Separation of Home and Workplace Before the IR, work was done in the home- making crafts/weaving/farming. After the IR, people left their homes to work in factories instead
Dual Revolution The French Revolution in conjunction with the Industrial Revolution
Luddites (1810) A group of jobless craftsmen responsible for smashing the machines that caused their unemployment; sabotage- "throwing of your shoe"
"Foul pools of stagnant urine and excrement..." Engels - "The Condition of the English Working Class" (1844). He exposed the effects of the IR in Manchester.
Manchesterism School of thought supporting free trade; liberals - modeling cities after Manchester
Poor Law of 1834 Stated external relief for the poor would be ceased. Restricted assistance to those in workhouses [places where one could live/work]; workhouses were made harsh to root out the "undeserving poor"
Bobbies Police force established by Sir Robert Peel in 1829; dressed in blue tail-coats and top hats. Uniforms designed to make officers less intimidating and more like the general public
Bonapartism Napoleon - form of dictatorship with a popular facade; desire to unite countries. A government that forms when class rule is not secure and a military, police, and state bureaucracy intervenes to establish order
Disasters of War Goya's paintings depicting the fatalities and horrid conditions during Spain's war against Napoleon
New Warfare aka Napoleonic Warfare; emphasized the offensive; the flank attack; highly mobile artillery and the integration of infantry, cavalry, and artillery forces; and the use of the infantry column as well as the line formation
Crystal Palace A symbol of progress and the imperial achievements made during the IR
Laissez Faire Policy allowing industry to be free of government restriction, especially restrictions in the form of tariffs and government monopolies; "let it be" or "leave it alone"
Bourgeois Monarchy rested on a broad social base centered on the wealthy bourgeoisie
Bourgeoisie a social class of people, characterized by their ownership of capital and the related culture; 'newly rich' middle or merchant class
Chartism A movement calling for universal suffrage for all adult males, the secret ballot, equal electoral districts, and annual parliamentary elections.
Hungry Forties A period of economic depression in Britain (1840s). Caused by a slump in trade and subsequent increase in unemployment; bad harvests and corn laws kept process high. Ireland suffered bad harvests which lead to the Irish Famine
June Days June 23-26 1848: A brief and bloody civil uprising in Paris in the early days of the Second Republic; new reforms were introduced but the new assembly cut funding to public work programs for the unemployed which led to protest
National Workshops Centralized, state-owned manufacturing establishments where workers could be guaranteed work. However, there was not much work to be done; led to June Days
"The bourgeoisie has, through its exploitation of the world market, given a cosmopolitan character to production" Marx & Engels "The Communist Manifesto" (1848). explains relation between bourgeoisie and proletariat; said bourgeoisie is dependent on instruments of production
Louis Napoleon aka Napoleon III, nephew of Napoleon I; reigned until Franco-Prussian war. Known for his rebuilding of France and building of the railway network.
Second Empire Under Napoleon III; goals: make Paris a livable place, show the world France's economic success, make Paris the center of world culture and politics
Paris Commune March - May 1871; formed by revolutionaries in an attempt to prevent the conservative majority from restoring the monarch after the end of the Second Empire. The commune was quickly suppressed & over 20,000 killed.
Otto von Bismarck Prussian statesman who founded the German Empire in 1871 and served as chancellor for 19 years & won the Franco-Prussian war; "iron chancellor." Introduced administrative and economic reforms, but sought to preserve the status quo.
Cavour An Italian statesman & leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification; his exploitation of international rivalries and revolutionary movement unified Italy under the house of Savoy. He became the 1st prime minister of the new king of Italy
Meiji Restoration Reign of the Meiji Emperor Mutsuhito, "enlightened rule" (1868-1912). Formed a new political community and banned the feudal system; stressed ethnic and linguistic homogeneity.
Blood and Iron Bismarck's policy: The great questions of the day will not be settled by means of speeches and majority decisions ... but by iron and blood.
Franco-Prussian War 1870-71; War in which Prussia defeated France, ending French supremacy and unifying Germany.
"White Man's Burden" The idea that has been used to encourage powerful nations to adopt an imperial role; Euro-centric point of view. All others are seen as childish and devilish, and it is up to the Europeans to civilize them
"The essence of a nation is that all individuals have many things in common, but also that they have forgotten many things" Renan 1882
Third Republic France during the Third Republic was politically very unstable. This instability was caused by rivalry between monarchists and republicans; period of imperial expansion and scientific and artistic achievement.
Great Depression severe worldwide economic depression from 1929 to 1940s
Social Imperialism a Marxist expression, typically used in a derogatory fashion, to describe people, parties, or nations that are "socialist in words, imperialist in deeds"
New Imperialism Aggressive competition for overseas territorial acquisitions (colonization); emergence in some colonizing countries of doctrines of racial superiority which purported to explain the unfitness of backward peoples for self-government.
Social Insruance A program where risks are transferred to and pooled by an organization that is legally required to provide certain benefits; i.e. social security and welfare. Long term insurance policy for the govt. to prevent revolution, as long as things run smoothly
Indian National Congress Political party in 1885; demanded greater representation of Indians in administrative legislative bodies
"I would annex the planets" Rhodes - British imperial apostle, business man, and political in South Africa. Exploited its natural resources; quote relates to his statement that the world is being parceled up - if he could he'd claim the planets that seem so close yet are so far away
Jewel of the Crown India - prized colony of the British empire for its natural resources
Three C's Justified by Social Darwinism [survival of the fittest], Europeans had the idea that they had the right, power, and patriotic duty to bring other countries under their rule: Christianity, Civilization, and Commerce (Livingstone)
Livingstone Pills Quinine; on his expeditions in Africa, his parties experienced lower death rates. Livingstone - medical missionary & explorer of Africa, named Victoria Falls
Suez Canal Reduced shipping/travel time between Europe and Asia; opened in 1869 connecting Mediterranean and Red Seas. Built and financed by France and Egypt but dominated by Britain
Berlin Congress Aim was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans; included Europe's Great Powers and the Ottoman Empire, headed by Bismark. Territories redistributed, but conflicts arose. Several sovereign states were recognized as free states [Montenegro, Serbia]
Scramble for Africa The colonization of Africa by European nations during New Imperialism
Social Darwinism The theory that persons, groups, or races are subject to the same laws of natural selection; "survival of the fittest" theory was used to justify imperialism and laissez-faire policy
Fashoda Incident or Crisis caused by years of territorial disputes in Africa between France and Great Britain. No war ensued, but tensions were high. Britain claimed the east and France the west.
"Place in the Sun" Kaiser Wilhelm II; wanted a "place in the sun" for the German people, so he gathered a militia and set out to claim a territory
Battle of Omdurman It was a demonstration of the superiority of a highly disciplined European-led army equipped with modern rifles and artillery over tribesmen with older weapons and marked the success of British efforts to re-conquer the Sudan
Garibaldi's Redshirts Supporters of Garibaldi during his conquests in Italy; led to the unification of Italy
Created by: winterose711