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636A Part II


What is the function of AUTORECEPTORS? Autoreceptors provide a feedback system for Neuron #2.
What happens first once a neurotransmitter is released? The NT chemicals move across the cleft.
What is Neuron #2 waiting for? Neuron # 2's receptors are waiting to get activated by neurotransmitters.
What is EXOCYTOSIS? The process of releasing NTs into the cleft
What is ENDOCYTOSIS? a process similar to EXOCYTOSIS where we reclaim the empty vesicles so they can be refilled and reused
What is the mechanism of an excitatory signal? When N #1 fires and releases, it is telling N #2 to fire.
What is the mechanism of an inhibitory signal? When N #1 fires and releases, it is telling N #2 not to fire.
What does an EXCITATORY signal and an INHIBITORY signal have in commmon? In both cases, N #1 is firing and releasing a NT.
What is a GRAYS TYPE I SYNAPSE? 1.) almost always associated with an excitatory signal 2.) asymmetrical
What is a GRAYS TYPE II SYNAPSE? 1.) almost always associated with an INHIBITORY signal 2.) symmetrical
When pre- and post-synaptic densities are the same, this is almost always indicative of ______________________________. an inhibitory signal
Amino acids are made up of subparts called _______. amines
What are the 3 general families of neurotransmitters? 1. amino acids 2. (somewhat simpler) amines 3. PEPTIDES (somewhat more complex amino acids that build a polypeptide chain)
Where are AMINES and AMINO ACIDS typically found? in synaptic vesicles
Where are peptides usually found, and why? in secretory granules because they are somewhat bigger structures
Receptors are usually found where/when? postsynaptically
An IONOTROPIC RECEPTOR starts its life as ___________________. an ion channel
What is the first difference betweeen an ION CHANNEL and an IONOTROPIC RECEPTOR? Somewhere on the structure is a little receptor site/a notch/a subunit.
How is an IONOTROPIC RECEPTOR gaited? chemical or LIGAND GAITED
It is the job of __________________ to open or close the channel. the neurotransmitter
What flows through the channel? IONS
What does not flow through the channel? neurotransmitters
The chemical key fits in ________________ and unlocks _________________. the receptor site; the channel
What is a CONFORMATIONAL CHANGE? the twisting open or changing shape of a channel due to neurotransmitters combining with chemicals
What happens after CONFORMATIONAL change takes place? Ions go through the channel.
How do we know which ions will go through the channel? the channel's specificity
+ charges send ____________ signals to Neuron #2. excitatory
(-) charges send _____________ signals to Neuron #2 inhibitory
When I ask, "What kind of synapse do I have?" I am referring to... excitatory or inhibitory
A GRAYS TYPE I SYNAPSE is associated with _________________. an ion with a + charge
A GRAYS TYPE II SYNAPSE is associated with __________________. an ion with a (-) charge
What is DESENSTITIZATION? A very dangerous condition in which synapses get clogged and desensitized to new signals
Name 3 ways of getting rid of NTs once they are released into the cleft and have done their job. 1.) DIFFUSION 2.) ENZYMATIC DESTRUCTION 3.) REUPTAKE
What is DIFFUSION? a very passive process in which glial cells communicate and clean up some of the NT like hungry wolves breaking down the NT right away in the cleft
What is ENZYMATIC DESTRUCTION? a very active process that involves the breaking of the NT almost as soon as it is released/NT parts can be brought back into the bouton for reuse/one NT this happens to is ACT
What is REUPTAKE? As soon as NT is released into cleft, it is sucked back into bouton for reuse.
What do reuptake inhibitors do? prevent reuptake so there is more NT bouncing around in the cleft
What are the 2 things that can happen when a NT is uptaken for reuse? 1.) NT can be repackaged for reuse 2.) NT can be enzymatically destroyed presynaptically by monooxidase in the bouton in the wall of the mitochondria
What does an MAOI do? inhibits the enzyme that destroys seratonin
What is the name of the enzyme that destroys NT in the wall of the mitochondria? monooxidase
How do nerve gasses work? by deactivating the wolf-like enzyme that break down ACT
What is the most frequently found NT at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION? ACT
What happens if you destroy the enzymes that break down ACT at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION? You can't move and you die; nothing works.
What is a disease related too to much of the NT DA? schizophrenia
MAOIs break down ______________, resulting in _______________. the enzyme that destroys DA; more DA
MAOIs increase the amt of which 3 NTs available? DA, NE, 5HT
Is there such a thing as an excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitter? No.
It is the characteristics of ______________ that determines what happens. the receptor the NT is opening
What is GABA? an inhibitory NT (in almost every case, it activates inhibitory receptors)
We try to increase __________ in seizure disorders. GABA
What do we need to get secretory granules to release NTs? 1.) a longer amount of time 2.) repeated firings
What does the release of NTs from the synaptic vesicles have in common w/ the release of NTs from the secretory granules? the process of exocytosis
Synaptic vesicles contain ______ and ________ which get released every time. amines; amino acids
What is COTRANSMISSION? a single neuron releases multiple NTs with repeated firings
The brain practices its own kind of ________________. polypharmacy
The more specific a drug becomes,the ________________ and ____________. less effective it becomes; less harmful the side effects (tradeoff in effectiveness_
At the cellular level, what is learning? the breaking down and building of new synapses
What is a catecholamine? a neurotransmitter that is a subset of the monoamine family
What are the steps required to build a catecholine structure? 1. tyrosine 2.) tyrosine hydroxylate 3.) l-doba 4.) dopamine 5.) norepinephrine 6.) epinephrine (adrenaline)
What is the function of TYROSINE HYDROXYLATE? It is an enzyme that breake TYROSINE down/converts it to l-dopa.
Describe a rate-limiting step and give an example. You can feed someone a truckoad of tyrosine, but it won't equal a truckload of l-dopa; the conversion of tyrosine to l-dopa via tyrosine hydroxylate is an example.
What does every transition require in the building of a catecholine structure? an enzyme that makes changes to the previous step
Why does the making of a catecholine structure require an enzyme that makes changes to the previous step? Because certain chemicals such as DA cannot cross the blood-brain barrier
What is the importance of DA, and what does too little DA lead to? movement; Parkinson's-like symptoms
What else is too little DA linked to? mood disorders
What happens when you take meth? DA gets reuptaken/reversal of reuptake pump/reverse direction/goes from sucking in to wblowing out DA into the synapse (blowing DA OUT)
What does a person start to resemble as a result of too many amphetamines, speed, etc? a schizophrenic
Where does the transformation from DA to NE happen? INSIDE a synaptic vesicle; DA gets packaged inside the synaptic vesicle
What has to happen to make epinephrine? You ahve to release NE OUTSIDE the synaptic vesicle. Then enzympes make NE into Epinephrine.
What does it usually take to get Neuron #2 to change? multiple firings on N#2
Where is the final place where threshold must be reached if a neuron is to fire? axon hillock
N#2 also has _________ picking up conflicting signals. dendrites
Name the 2 ways in which N#2 makes the decision to fire. 1.) SPACIAL SUMMATION 2.) TEMPORAL SUMMATION
What is SPACIAL SUMMATION? a widespread summation over space; N#2 takes signals simultaneously from all ifferent neurons giving the same message, saying, "Fire!" (one big shout or signal from other neurons to fire)
What is TEMPORAL SUMMATION? Instead of multiple upstream signals giving FIRE signal, we have neurons going FIREFIREFIRE over time; climbing instead of one big blast
What is EPSP? excitatory post-synaptic potential (likely to excite N#2); the ability of neurons to fire or know when to fire
What is IPSP? inhibitory post-synaptic potential;inhibitory signal is present from another neuron trying to send a message to N#2
What is a ZONE OF NEGATIVITY? It involves a SHUNTING INHIBITION that an counteract all the + charges trying to come through (like a hole in a hose trying to fire)
Any place you have a zone of negativity, you have a _________________________________. shunting inhibition
What are AXON COLLATERALS? multiple branches on an axon that provide a kind of feedback mechanism/can send a signal back to its own dendrites saying, "I'm not going to listen to your msg to fire" an inhibiting the signal.
What happens if you release too much NT into the cleft? The NT reaches out across the active zone and autoreceptors pick up on it and stop the release of NTs.
What did Sherrington work with, and what did he want to see? the REFLEX ARCH; how long a reflex took and what was happening
Where do reflexes happen, and why do we have them? locally in the spinal cord; so we have fast, failsafe movement for survival
A NERVE IMPULSE is a ______________ phenomenon that can be observed. physical
What did Sherrington name? the connection between 2 neurons = the SYNAPSE
Sherrington though the connection between neurons was an _______________ phenomenon. electrical
Who implied that the synaptic process is chemical and won the Nobel Prize for it? Ottolowie
Who discovered the first NT, and what was it? Ottolowie; Acetycholine
Any time we have a neuron commanding a muscle to move, we have _______________. ACT
Where is ACT primarily found? at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
What happens at the neuromuscular junction? nerves enervate muscles
What else is ACT very important for? learning & memory in the brain
Where do we normally get rid of ACT, and what happens? in the cleft; it gets released by a neuron onto a muscle
How and where is ACT destroyed? What destroys ACT? enzymatic destruction; in the cleft; AChE ESTERASE
Why must we get rid of ACT? so it does not clog the signal
How do nerve gasses work? They bind to and block out AChE, preventing it from destroying ACT, ACT builds up and clogs signal
What is NE important for? overall state of arousal
NE deficiencies are mostly associated with _________________. depression
Too much NE is sometimes associated with _______________. mania
Adrenaline is important to ____________. the sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight/gets you ready for action
What does the parasympathetic nervous system do? calms you back down
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are _____________________________. always moving back and forth/balancing out.
What has been shown to prevent PTSD? beta blockers to trauma victims within a few days of the trauma
Seratoninn (5HT) is a ______________ and is associated with ______________. monoamine; melatonin
What is 5HT derived from? an amino acid: triptophan
Why are drugs like meth and coke so addicting? They mess w/ dopamine levels/reward system/hijack the anterior part of the cingulate gyrus
What is the most common excitatory (+) NT in the brain? Clarify what this means. GLUTAMATE; Most of the time the receptors the GLUTAMATE is activating are excitatory.
What can be released in large quantities if you damage a brain area? GLUTAMATE
What is it called when neurons surrounding an injured area of the brain are overstimulated by damaged nerves? a glutamate storm
A lack of ____ results in seizures. GABA
Alcohol has its own little site on ____________ receptors. If alcohol is present and ______________ gets released, the ________________ might stay open twice as long a it normally does. GABA; ion channel
Describe DOWNREGULATION a way in which neurons are changing number of receptors; neuron GETS RID OF receptors to reestablish equilibrium (In alcohol addiction, the neuron gets rid of 1/2 its GABA receptors... results in nowhere near the Cl- ions you need
What is UPREGULATION? The brain builds back receptors (In the case of alcohol, it builds back GABA receptors.)
What is a RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST? a drug that blocks/keeps receptor from being activated. It is like a cover over the receptor site that prevents that receptor from being activated for awhile.
What is a RECEPTOR AGONIST? a drug that activates the receptor
What is it called when several repeated firings are needed to bring a neuron to threshold? TEMPORAL SUMMATION
The effect of cotransmission can be likened to ____________________________. polypharmacy
When a G-Protein center gets activated, it activates the ____________, which then _______________________________. ALPHA SUBUNIT; detachesa dn moves along the membrane until it activates something
What is the effect of the G-Protein on the other receptor? The G-Protein unit modulates the activity of the other receptor.
The G-Protein receptor is _______________. metabotropic
the G-Protein is inddirectly coupled to the _________________. ion channel
The brain fires more frequently when ________________________________. Secretory granules release __________________ then the _____________________ gets activated, which strengthens connections. something is novel or important; peptides; ionotropic receptor
Once connections are strengthened, it takes _________________ from now on to activate the _________________. less firing; ionotropic receptor
the first messenger is the ____________. neurotransmitter
Sometimes what the G-Protein activates is an ______________. enzyme
A msg that says, "Tear down some receptor sites bc we're bombarded with msgs from above" would result in ________________. downregulation
What kind of receptor is an autoreceptor? a G-Protein
When a G-Protein gets activated it, ______________________________. It hits an ______________________. revs up and moves across the membrane; effector protein
And effector protein could be an ______________ or an _________________. enzyme; ionotropic receptor
What is the G-subunit able to do? modulate the normal behavior of the receptor
________________ make it very difficult for bad stuff to get into the brain. They are, in effect, the _________________. TIGHT JUNCTIONS; blood-brain barrier
What can get around the blood-brain barrier? usually only small, uncharged, lipid-based particles
Why is it a problem that most things cannot pass through the blood-brain barrier? b/c a lot of very useful drugs have a hard time getting across the blood-brain barrier
What exists in the capillary wall or _____________________ that can bring food, remove waste, etc. from bloodstream to brain? endothelial cells; active transporter proteins
What is the 2nd layer of the blood-brain barrier/another layer of protection? astrocyes pseudopodia
Astrocytes pseudopodia are a subtype of ________________ that put out___________ and seem to be a 2nd layer of barrier from thing sbeing able to get in and out of brain thru the bloodstream. glial cell; false feet
To get through the blood-brain barrier PASSIVELY, something must be _________________. a small, uncharged, lipid-based particle like oxygen
how much blood does the brain consume? 1.5 pints per minute
The brain requires __x the amount of fuel as any other body part 10
The brain uses about __% of the oxygen you breathe in even though it accounts for __% of body weight 20%;2%
How much of the brain's energy is consumed getting the neuron to rest? 80%
Can the brain store fuel? No. There's no storage for oxygen or glucose in the brain; brain needs constant circulation or flow of such things.
There is a redundancy of arteries brining the blood into the brain. They are ____________ and ____________ arteries. If you blow out or clog up one system, ______________________. vertebral; cartoid; there is a backup
What happens 5-10 seconds after the brain runs out of oxygen? lose consciousness
What happens 20 seconds after the brain runs out of oxygen? twitching/convulsions/brain starts to shut down
What happens 4 min after the brain runs out of oxygen? permanent damage
What happens 10 min after the brain runs out of oxygen? death or severe, lasting brain damage
What is the first process of vision? attention/focusing
Regardless of sensory modality, we have to __________ (change the energy from one form to another). in this case, we're turning data into action potentials so __________________________. transduce; our nervous systems can handle the data
Rods handle black & white
cones handle color
Where does transduction in the visual system take place? in the rods and cones
area in each eye that doesn’t have room for any rods and cones = the blind spot
What exists at the OPTIC CHIASM? a partial decussation/a partial crossing over of information
Which eye fields cross over? the nasal eye fields
Which eye fields stay on the same side/don't cross over? What is this called? the temporal eye fields; ipsolateral
If you cut thru the optic chiasm, you would have __________________. just central vision = BITEMPORAL HEMIANOPIA.
What is it called when you lose vision in a single eye? monocular blindness
What happens when there is a lesion of one optic tract? lose an entire hemi-space/HOMONYMOUS HEMIANOPIA
Some of the info from each eye goes to which part of the brain? hypothalamus
Only a relatively small # of neurons actually produce essential NTs like... SE, DA, NE
What are DIFFUSE MODULATORY SYSTEMS? systems in the brain not handling the ON/OFF of the brain but modulating/fine-tuning/moving u back and forth between things)/diffusely spreading important NTs throughout the brain
4 different diffuse modulatory systems/one for each of... SE, DA, NE, ACT
Describe DA's diffuse modulatory system DOPAMINERGIC: SUBSTANTIA NIGRA… if SN gets hit, lack of DA in basal ganglia will result in a movement disorder: Parkinson’s.
What is transduction? Changing energy into one form to another; turning environmental energy into action potentials
When do ganglion cells come into play? Once bipolar cells see something consistent happening between rods and cones
Ganglion cells are a kind of ____________ system. intermediary
Ganglion cells push out a long axon. All these long axons converge in a single place and exit the eye. Once they leave the back of the eye, these axons are known as _________________. the optic nerve
What does each eye get that the other doesn't? Or, what is lost to the opposite eye? the periphery
The middle part of the world (in vision) is handled by __________. both eyes
The peripherals of the world (in vision) are handled by __________________. one eye or the other
Name the 3 areas of vision. midline; right hemi-space; left hemi-space
Only PART of the visual information that is handled by each eye crosses over to the opposite eye. Where does it cross over? at the optic chiasm
From ganglion cells through the handling of information, there is __________________. no new synapse; no handing off of information
What happens if you lose one optic tract? everything from the opposite visual hemi-space is gone
About 10% of all ganglian cell info that’s coming out of eye is going into... the superior colliquii.
Describe the 5HT diffuse modulatory system. Specifically, what is it called? SERATONERGIC – little nuclei on seam all the way down the 2 hemispheres called RAPHE NUCLEI. These are the nuclei from which long projections come out and bathe brain in serotonin; RAPHE NUCLEI are the diffuse modulatory system for serotonin.
What gives itself feedback and changes itself so it stops releasing so much NT? an autoreceptor, which is a G-Protein
Where are peptides normally packaged? secretory granules
Where are amines usually packaged? synaptic vesicles
Where are amino acids usually packaged? synaptic vesicles
Where is the first visual synapse located? betw. rods and cones and bipolar cells
Only _________________ can activate the G-Protein receptor. PEPTIDES
What is an Electrical Synapse, you bitch? AKA Gap Junction, which is very fast, very reliable, and very simple. Physical connection between two neurons in some places. Electrotonically- mediate escape reflexes
What are the ions that connect neurons? Connexons
First vision process involves________________. rods and cones
Where does transduction take place? Retina
What is the blindspot? This is where the ganglion cell axons are pushing out of the eye to form the optic nerve; there are no rods or cones in this part.
Where is the next synapse located after the synapse between bipolar and ganglion cells? Thalamus
What is the thalamus? sensory relay system
The thalamus is made up of lots of little structures scrunched together, known as _______________________. Lateral Ganiculate Nuclei
Once the information hits the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe ________ or ________ can said to have taken place. vision or sensation
If you have any lack of raw visual sensory information, you have _________. Blindness
What are the three places that a small amount of info coming out of each eye goes to? hypothalamus, midbrain and into cranial nerves, and superior coliculi
In order to perceive visual sensation, you need to push that information back to the front of the brain by two different perceptual streams. what are they and what is their purpose? Ventral stream- leaves occipital lobes and goes back into temporal lobes to give it perceptual meaning, the "What" pathway; Dorsal/parietal stream- leaves occipital lobes and goes into the parietal lobes to givess us the "where"
Special part of Thalamus known as... LGN (Lateral Geniculate Nucleus).
Describe the 1st perceptual stream... info leaves occipital lobes and returns to temporal lobes, where the brain perceives/sometimes known as VENTRAL STREAM or "WHAT" pathway
Describe the NE diffuse modulatory system NORADRINERGIC/arises out of an area in the brainstem in a blue-colored spot/LOCUS CERULEUS (“the blue spot”); the actual neuron bodies are located in the blue spot in the brainstem; those neurons reach out their axons and bathe the brains in NE.
ACH diffuse modulatory system cells send out long axons and bathe bigger areas of the brain w/ NT; neurons are in discrete, small locations. CHOLiNERGIC (influenced by ACT). BASAL NUCLEUS of MEYNERT = tiny nucleus of ACT-releasing neurons/imp. to learning and memory.
Describe the 2nd perceptual stream dorsal pathway or parietal pathway, goes up into parietal lobes from occipital lobes, gives us the WHERE of something, keeps track of motion and direction
Bizarre perceptual distortions can occur if... strokes, tumors, infections, etc
Where is the 2nd visual synapse located? bet. bipolar cells and ganglion cells
Final visual synapse is located... in the THALAMUS
The thalamus uses a lot of ______________. seratonin
Created by: mychellerogers