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Forensic Science T1

Forensic Science Ch.1-4 Test 1

Forensic Science (definition): the application of science to the law.
Forensic scientists operate for the public, but are represented by the courts.
Natural & Forensic science differ in: goals.
Natural & Forensic science both use: the scientific method (data, measurements, ...)
The three basic steps in the Scientific Method: 1.Hypothesis 2.Observe, collect data 3.Results
In the hypothesis you define the problem.
A Coroner system is more likely in what type of place/area? Rural.
A Medical Examiner system is likely in what kind of area? Urban/city.
Anyone can be elected a (blank) with a fee payment, in the US. Coroner.
Only licensed medical doctors are eligible to be a medical examiner.
What does a medical examiner perform that a coroner cannot? Autopsies.
A forensic pathologist examines tissues & diagnoses disease in natural death. Their main duty is to determine cause of death.
The forensic pathologist or medical examiner reports/testimony on the autopsy dictate what findings? -cause, manner, and mechanism of death -the weight and appearance of their organs -general characteristics
Cause of death is why death occurred (ex: injury, disease).
Mechanism of death is how abnormality in the 'cause of death' affected the body to end in death (ex: lack of oxygen to the brain, excessive blood loss).
Manner of death is the circumstance of death. 1.Homicide 2.Suicide 3.Accident 4.Natural 5.Undetermined
What are the manners of death? Homicide, suicide, accident, natural, undetermined.
Is 'time of death' is exact? No. Unless there are witnesses or video evidence, time of death is an approximation/estimation.
Rigor mortis is stiffening of the muscles shortly after death (due to glycogen supply being used up, since body is no longer making it).
Rigor mortis is seen about how long after death? About 4 hrs after death, unless the victim exerted strenuous energy directly prior to death. The body uses more glycogen when in high physical activity (like exercise), which would cause the body to go into rigor mortis almost instantly after death.
Rigor mortis dissipates about 24-36 hrs after death.
Rigor mortis is or is not exact? It is affected by the body weight and the surrounding temperature, among other things. Therefore, it's not exact.
Livor mortis is skin discoloration from blood (red blood cells) settling after death.
Livor mortis becomes fixed at about twelve hours after death.
Livor mortis disappears at about 36 hours after death.
Algor mortis is cooling of the body after death.
Algor mortis is least (blank) because (blank). reliable, there are many variables.
A nude body cools at about 1.5 degrees Celsius per hour.
What are the classifications of traumatic death? 1. Mechanical 2. Thermal 3. Chemical 4. Electrical
Mechanical trauma is when applied force exceeds strength of tissue.
What are the types of mechanical trauma? Sharp force trauma & blunt force trauma.
Sharp force trauma is recognized by? Incised wounds or stab wounds (a "clean cut", sharp wound edges).
In 'sharp force trauma' how much force is required vs. 'blunt force' trauma? Less.
Sharp force trauma vs. blunt force trauma requires less force.
Incised wounds are longer than deep.
Stab wounds are deeper than wide.
In sharp force trauma, death is primarily from exsanguination/hypovolemia (bleeding out).
In blunt force trauma, death is commonly caused by brain (head injury) or organ damage.
The most common homicide & suicide wound is a gun shot wound.
The type of wound caused by blunt force trauma is a laceration.
A gun shot wound is what type of wound and trauma? Laceration; blunt force.
A laceration is a tare (wound has rough edges).
The first step in discharging a firearm is pulling the trigger.
After the trigger is pulled, of a firearm, the firing pin hits the primer of the cartridge.
After the firing pin hits the primer there is a tiny explosion from the primer igniting the powder.
The ignition of the powder sets the projectile in motion.
The bullet and powder are then propelled forward by gases given off by the burning powder.
The bullet size cannot be accurately determined by the size of the wound.
A distance gun shot (wound) lacks what on the penetrating wound? Smoke & powder.
Penetrating wound = entrance wound.
Perforating wound = exit wound.
Few lacerations around gun shot wound = slow exit, which means bullet fell near.
Many lacerations around gun shot wound = fast exit, which means look further for bullet.
Bullet wound injury is caused by the (blank) of a cavity created by the bullet passing through the body and the (blank). Collapse; shock wave.
Bullets travel faster than the rate that tissue tears.
The most common blunt trauma injuries, aside from firearms, are caused by. vehicle accidents.
Does one blow to the head render a victim unconscious? Rarely.
A contusion is a bruise (accumulation of blood in the tissues around a blood vessel).
A hematoma is a blood tumor (not really a 'tumor', but more blood accumulated than contusion)
The most common chemical trauma death (deaths due to drugs) is by alcohol (ethanol).
The percent/amount of trauma deaths with alcohol as a contributing factor are about half.
Thermal trauma death is due to excessive heat/cold.
Electrical trauma death is due to passage of electricity through the body.
Forensic Toxicology is the study of poisons in pertaining to legal matters.
The five groups of drugs screened in a drug test are 1.Amphetamines 2.Opiates 3.Phencyclidine (PCP) 4.Cocaine 5.Cannabinoids
Created by: Sonhos