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302 Biomechanics

302 Biomechanics 2005

QuestionAnswer
Ligaments of CV Complex Alar (rotation) - Transverse (posteroanterior stability) - Tectorial (vertical) - Atlanto-dental - Nuchae - occipital-atlanto membrane ant + post
Cervikal spine is which 2 functional units + joint type + dgr freedom Atlanto-Occipital joint (bicondylar, ovoid - flex/ext + lat.flexion/rotation) - Atlanto-Axial joint (flex/ext - rotation/lat.flexion)
AA rotation is % of total cx rotation? 70%
Midcervikal spine consists of 3 joints Zygapophyseal (paired) - Uncovertebral (paired) - Interbody (disk)
Describe lat.flex + rotation at midcervikal spine rotation + lat.flex to same side
Describe lat.flex + rotation at Atlanto Occipital-joint Lat.flex = occiput to contralateral side + rotation to same side
Ratio disc:vertebral body height compared to Cx or Tx Less
Ratio disc diameter:disc height compared to Lx 2-3 times higher
What limits extension in Tx Spinous + Transverse process
Shape of T1 Superior costal facets circular -> articulate with 1st rib head - Spinous horizontal + long + prominent as C7
Shape of T9 No inferior costal facet - No direct articulation with 10. rib
Shape of T10 No inferior costal facet - No articulation 11. rib
Shape T 11 Articulate with 11 rib only - Small transverse
Shape T12 Articulate only with 12. rib - vertebrae similar to Lx vertebrae
True Ribs 1 - 7
False Ribs 8 - 10
Floating ribs 11 + 12
Rib functions Protect heart, lungs, and great vessels against trauma - Provide attachment - Facilitate postural alignment and upper extremity function
Tx ROM Flexion + Extension + lat.flexion –> 20–45 - Rotation -> 35–50
In thoracic spine, if lat.flex first - rotation to contralat side
In thoracic spine, if rotation first - lat.flex to ipsilat side
Describe the respiration movements Pump handle: anterior aspect of rib moving superiorly - Bucket handle: lateral aspect of rib moving superiorly
Scheuermans's must have at least how many wedged bodies + degrees 3 bodies with 5 dgrs or more
Osteoporosis description Low bone density - fractures
Kyphosis definition Exaggaration of normal posterior curve of spine
3 types scoliosis Nonstructural scoliosis -Transient structural scoliosis - Structural scoliosis (idiopathic accounts for 70–80% of cases of scoliosis)
Movements of SC joint Elevation 4-60 - Depression 5-15 - Protraction/retraction 15 dgr - Rotation 30-50 posterorly about an horizontal axis
Describe the axis of AC-joint movement Vertical axis = medial/lateral rotation - Transverse axis in sagittal plane = up/down rotation - Transverse axis in frontal plane = scapula anterior/posterior tilting (http://connection.lww.com/Products/hall-brody/ppts.asp chap 26 p 6)
Function of Deltoid Deltoid functions to elevate the arm and produces superior translation of humeral head.
Function Rotator Cuff Inferior and medial forces of rotator cuff (RC) offset superior translation of deltoid (specifically the INF, TM, subscap). Also assists in limiting anterior/posterior translation of humeral head.
Describe force couple of shoulder rotation Rotation of scapula is provided by trapezius force couple (upper, mid, lower) and and serratus anterior. PICR migrates from root of scapula toward AC joint. (http://connection.lww.com/Products/hall-brody/ppts.asp - chap 26 p 15)
Segmental Lx ROM Flexion: 10, Extension: 3, Rotation: 2
Line of gravity is through which vertebrae and where Ventral to L4
Compressive load during walking = how much compared to bodyweight 2 times more
When is the walking load greatest maximal at toe-off and increased linearly with speed
Factors influencing spine loads The position of the object relative to the center of motion of the spine. - The size, shape, weight, and density of the object. - The degree of flexion or rotation of the spine.
SI-joint: Passive mechanisms contribute to form.... Form closure
SI-joint: Active mechanisms contribute to force closure Force closure
The SIJ relies on what for stability The SI-joint relies on both form and force closure mechanisms for stability.
Which movements at Si-joint? The most widely accepted movements are nutation and counter-nutation.
SI- nutation is... Sacral flexion in which the base of the sacrum moves anterior and inferior and the apex moves posterior and superior
Rotation of pelvis in clockwise direction results in left hip .... rotation and right hip .... rotation left hip lateral rotation and right hip medial rotation
Muscles prone for tightness Triceps Surea - Hip adductors - Hamstring - Rec Fem - Iliopsoas - TFL - QL - Piriformis - Pecs
Muscles prone for weakness Deep Neck Flexors - Peroneus ... - Vastus ... - Glutes - Abdominals - Rhomboids - Mid/Lower Traps -
Hypertonic mm in lower cross syndrome: Iliopsoas - Rec Fem - Erector Spinae
Hypotonic mm in lower cross syndrome: Abs + glutes
Principles in posture : Muscle WEAKNESS = Approximation or Separation? Separation
Key movement patterns affected in lower cross syndrome are: Hip extension + ABduction - Trunk flexion
Lower cross syndrome increases stress on which motion segment Particularly L5-S1
Combined result of lower cross-posture is over-stress where? L/S, T/L junctions, SI, hip and knee joints are all over-stressed
Example Functional Leg Lenght Femoral and tibial medial rotation
Femoral and tibialmedial rotation could be a result of the following 3 altered biomechanics Lengthened or weak posterior gluteus mediusand deep hip lateral rotators - Lengthened or weak foot supinators-Postural foot pronationor supination
The thoracic spine & rib cage function: A) resist compr load B) posturally support tx spine C) protect lungs, heart, vessels D) All of the above D
With coupling, rotation of C3 to R: A) ipsilat facet moves back+upward B) Contralat facet moves back & upward C) Ipsilat facet moves back & down D) Contralat facet moves back & down C
Thoracolumbar fasckia provides support to Lx spine due to: A) Stretching & tightening during flexion B) Narrowing of it during flex hus increasing tension C) contraction of abd mm producing tension in fascia D) All of above D
Which is true for the cervikal spine: A) During flex, Cx lordosis increases B) If in a R lat.flex position, rotation would be easier to R than L C) Majority of C flex occur at C2-3 D) All of above B
Stress = A/F or F/A? F/A
Another word for strain deformation
What is hysteresis Tissue regains shape at a different rate when returning to unloaded state the
With loads repetition, what does hysteresis lead to? Loss of energy capacity
What is creep Elongation over time with a constant load
The muscle contraction involved results in greater or less compressive force than the weight of the object Greater
What is Moment or Torque The tendency of a rigid body to rotate when a force is applied to it
Formula for torque T = perpendicular d * F
Lifting a 20 kg weight: with bent back and knees straight = 2100 True or False False. Right answer is 3270
Describe the 7 rules for lifting First of all, it's only 6... 1. Keep the load close, do not reach. 2. Do not twist 3.Keep the lumbar lordosis, do not bend the back 4. Bend the knees and hips 5. Warm up 6. Do not overdo it!
Describe tripod lifting technique Just like proposing... (kneeling)
Created by: kroberg on 2005-11-26



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