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Chapter 13


___________ is a viral disease causing tobacco leaves to shrivel and assume a mosaic appearance TOBACCO MOSAIC DISEASE
___________ is a mosquito borne viral disease of the human liver and blood YELLOW FEVER
___________ have the ability to destroy bacterial cells BACTERIOPHAGES
___________ can be seen only with the electron microscope and must infect and take over a host cell in order to replicate VIRUSES
The ______________ contains either DNA or RNA, but not both VIRAL GENOME
A ___________ is the protein coat of a virus particle CAPSID
___________ are individual protein subunits which capsids are subdivided CAPSOMERES
The __________ is the capsid with its enclosed genome NUCLEOCAPSID
__________ are special capsid proteins that help attach the virus to the host cell and facilitate penetration of the cell SPIKES
__________ are composed only of a nucleocapsid NAKED VIRUSES
__________ are small, obligate intracellular parasites VIRUSES
A __________ is a completely assembled, infectious virus outside its host cell VIRION
__________ is a flexible membrane that surrounds viruses ENVELOPE
What is the envelope composed of? LIPIDS & PROTEINS
The _________ are viruses surrounded by an envelope ENVELOPED VIRUS
Viruses that exist in the form of a helix are ______________ HELICAL SYMMETRY
What are 2 examples of Helical symmetry viruses? RABIES & TOBACCO MOSAIC
What are the 3 shapes of viruses? HELICAL, ISOCAHEDRAL & COMPLEX SYMMETRY
What are 2 examples of isocahedral symmetry viruses? HERPES SIMPLEX & POLIOVIRUSES
Viruses that have both helical and isocahedral symmetry have ___________ COMPLEX SYMMETRY
What are 2 examples of complex symmetry viruses? BACTERIOPHAGES & POXVIRUSES
A __________ refers to what organisms the virus can infect HOST RANGE
____________ is the limitation in which viruses only infect certain cell types or tissues within the host TISSUE TROPISM
What does ICTV stand for? International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses
How do retroviruses replicate? INDIRECTLY THROUGH A DNA INTERMEDIATE
_____________ are virulent viruses that carry a lytic cycle of infection T-EVEN GROUP BACTERIOPHAGES
_____________ is a 5 Step Process THE REPLICATION OF BACTERIOPHAGES
What are the 5 Phases of the replication of bacteriophages? PHASE 1:ATTACHMENT PHASE 2: PENETRATION PHASE 3: BIOSYNTHESIS PHASE 4: MATURATION PHASE 5: RELEASE
____________ is the first phase that occurs when a phage's tail fibers match with a receptor site on the bacterium's cell wall PHASE 1: ATTACHMENT
____________ is the second stage that occurs when the phage tail releases lysozyme to dissolve a portion of the cell wall and the DNA is injected into the bacterial cytoplasm PHASE 2: PENETRATION
___________ is the production of new phage genomes and capsid parts PHASE 3: BIOSYNTHESIS
___________ is the assembly of viral parts into complete virus particles PHASE 4: MATURATION
___________ is the exit of virions from the bacterium PHASE 5: RELEASE
___________ are virulent viruses that carry out a lytic cycle of infection T-EVEN GROUP BACTERIOPHAGES
___________ lyse the host cell while carrying out a lytic cycle of infection VIRULENT VIRUSES
__________ is when virions exit from their bacterial shell and the cell ruptures LYSIS STAGE
__________ is when phages interact with prokaryotic cells in a slightly different way LYSOGENIC CYCLE
__________ are bacteriophages that participate in the lysogenic cycle TEMPERATE PHAGES
__________ attach to host plasma membranes via spikes on the capsid or envelope ANIMAL VIRUSES
__________ is a process by which insoluble materials are taken into a cell by invagination of the plasma ENDOCYTOSIS
__________ is the separation of the capsid from the genome, as occurs as some animal viruses enter the cell UNCOATING
__________ is the process when the virus pushes through the membrane ahead of it and around it, resulting in an envelope BUDDING
__________ is when retroviruses carry their own enzyme REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE
__________ are DNA viruses and retroviruses that insert their genome into the host chromosome PROVIRUS
The state of ___________ occurs when the provirus encodes a repressor protein that prevents activation of the viral genes necessary for replication LATENCY
Some_________ block the ability of viruses to penetrate or uncoat in the host cell ANTIVIRALS
The provirus encodes a ______________ that prevents activation of the viral genes necessary for replication REPRESSOR PROTEIN
_____________ are immune to the host body's defenses and is ___________ each time the cell's chromosome is reproduced LATENT PROVIRUSES, PROPAGATED
_____________ prevents the synthesis of DNA in retroviruses REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS
_____________ impeded the HIV protease that trims viral proteins in capsid construction PROTEASE INHIBITORS
_____________ block an enzyme in the spike of influenzaviruses, preventing the release of new virions into the body NEURAMINIDASE INHIBITORS
_____________ is a group of naturally produced proteins that alert cells to a viral infection INTERFERON (IFN)
Some _____________ exist to affect viral penetration/uncoating, genome replication, or maturation/release ANTIVIRALS
Most _____________ target the replication enzymes of the virus, inserting base analogs in the replicating DNA strand and blocking replication of the viral genome ANTIVIRALS
TRUE OR FALSE: IFN's bind to receptors on cells, triggering them to produce antiviral proteins TRUE
What series of bright red patches with pimple-like centers accompany Measles? KOPLICK SPOTS
____________ are a series of bright red patches with pimple-like centers accompany Measles KOPLICK SPOTS
Who helped identify viruses? THOMAS RIVERS
___________ uses light microscopy to examine cells for cytopathic effects (CPEs) of viral infection CYTOLOGY
__________ occurs when viruses replicate in host cells CYTOPATHIC EFFECTS
__________ are multinucleate giant cells that are formed when paramyxoviruses cause host cells to fuse together SYNCYTIA
__________ are cytoplasmic nucleoprotein inclusions found in the brain tissue of a rabid animal NEGRI BODIES
__________ is an uncontrolled growth and spread of cells CANCER
A ___________ is a clone of abnormal cells TUMOR
A local tumor is designated __________ because it usually is not life threatening BENIGN
A ________________ are tumor cells that break free from the capsule and spread to other tissues of the body MALIGNANT TUMOR
___________ occurs when tumor cells break out of the capsule METASTASIS
In a __________________ the cells adhere to the bottom of a plastic dish or well and reproduce to form a single layer PRIMARY CELL CULTURE
A _____________ is a single layer of cells MONOLAYER
A _____________ occurs with the different cell types in a primary cell culture can be separated enzymatically and isolated as a single cell type CELL LINE
______________ is a clear zone within the cloudy "lawn" of bacterial cells or monolayer of animal cells PLAQUE
______________ occurs when epidemiologic surveys of several bacterial disease are aided by plaque formation PHAGE TYPING
What percent of human cancers are associated with carcinogens? 60%-90%
______________ are chemical and physical agents that produce cellular changes leading to cancer CARCINOGENS
A ____________ is a malignant tumor that begins growing in connective tissue SARCOMA
______________ is the conversion of a normal cell into a malignant cell brought about by the action of a carcinogen TRANSFORMATION
A ____________ is a test to detect cancerous or precancerous cells of the cervix PAP SMEAR
_____________ are tumor causing viruses Oncogenic viruses
What are 2 examples of oncogenic viruses? EPSTEIN-BARR & HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV)
_____________ is linked to Burkitt Lymphoma EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS
_____________ is a tumor of the jaw BURKITT LYMPHOMA
_____________ is associated with cervical cancer HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS
What is the 2nd most common cancer in women under 35? CERVICAL CANCER
The ________________ suggests that protooncogenes normally reside in the chromosomal DNA of a cell ONCOGENE THEORY
____________ are protooncogenes that are captured in the viral genome V-ONCOGENES
____________ are normal genes that are the forerunners of oncogenes PROTOONCOGENES
____________ are a type of white blood cell important in immunity B LYMPHOCYTES
____________ are the result of viruses appearing for the first time in a population or rapidly expanding their host range with a corresponding increase in detectable disease EMERGING DISEASES
What is one way "new" viruses arise? GENETIC RECOMBINATION
____________ allows 2 different viruses to reassort their genome sequences GENETIC RECOMBINATION
The ___________________ hypothesis suggests that viruses are degenerate life forms REGRESSIVE EVOLUTION
The ___________________ hypthesis suggests that viruses are derived from subcellular componets and macromolecules that escaped from cell walls and were able to replicate inside hosts CELLULAR ORIGINS
The ___________________ hypothesis suggests viruses coevolved with cellular organisms from self-replicating molecule present on primitive Earth INDEPENDENT ENTITIES
___________ are infectious RNA particles VIROIDS
___________ are tiny fragments of RNA that cause diseases in crop plants VIROIDS
___________ are infectious proteins PRIONS
__________ occur in humans and other animals TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ECEPHALOPATHIES
__________ are neurologic degenerative disease that can be transmitted within or between species TSEs
__________ is the loss of memory DEMENTIA
Who discovered the proteinaceous infectious particle (prion)? STANLEY PRUSINER
The _____________ hypothesis predicts that prions are composed only of protein and contain no nucleic acids PROTEIN-ONLY
_________ is the human form of TSE VARIANT CJD (CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE)
Created by: LM83