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PCOM Medical Term

Ch 5 & 6 Vocabulary

absorption passage of material through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
amino acids building blocks of protein,produced when proteins are digested
amylase enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch
anus opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
appendix blind pouch hanging from secum. in the RLQ
bile digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. it breaks ups large fat globules. it is composed of bile pigments, cholesterol, and bile salts
bilirubin pigment released by the liver in bile
bowel intestine
canine tooth pointed "dog tooth"-like, next to the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth
cecum first part of the large intestine
colon large intestine consisting of the cecum, the ascending transverse and decending segments of the colon; and rectum
common bile duct carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. also called the choledochus
defecation elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the rectum
deglutition swallowing
dentin major tissue composing teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root
digestion breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
duodenum first part of the small intestine
elimination act of removal of materials from the body
emulsification physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat
enamel hard, outermost layer of the tooth
enzyme a chemical that speeds up reaction between substance. digestive enzymes break down complex foods to simpler substances. Enzymes are given name that end in -ase
esophagus tube connecting the throat to the stomach
fatty acids substance produced when fats are digested
feces solid waste; stools
gallbladder small sac under the liver; store bile
glucose simple sugar
glycogen starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen
hydrochloric acid substance produced by the stomach;neccesary for the digestion of food
ileum third part of the small intestine
incisor one of four front teeth in the dental arch
insulin hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. it transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulated glycogen formation by the liver
jejunum second part of the small intestine
lipase pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
liver a large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen the liver secrets bile; stores sugar, iron and vitamins; produced blood protein; and destroys worn out red blood cells. the normal adult liver weighs about 2.5-3 lbs
lower esophageal sphincter ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. also called cardiac sphincter
mastication chewing
molar sixth, seventh, eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch, premolar teeth are the fourth and fifth, before the molars
palate roof of the mouth. the hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is support by the upper jaw bone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat
pancreas organ under the stomach, produces insulin and enzymes
papillae small elevations on the tongue
parotid gland salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
peristalsis rhythmic contractions of the tubes of the GI tract and other tubular structures.
pharynx throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose
portal vein large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
protease enzyme that digest protein
pulp soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
pyloric sphincter ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum
pylorus distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum
rectum last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus
rugae ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
saliva digestive juice produced by salivary glands
salivary glands parotid sublingual and submandibular glands
sigmoid colon 4th and last s shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties intot eh rectum
sphincter circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
stomach muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus the stomach parts are the fundus, body, and sntrum
triglycerides large fat molecules composed of 3 parts fatty acids and one part glycerol
uvula soft tissue hanging form the middle of the soft palate
villi microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
Created by: urbandanzer