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Sociology Chapter 1

Essentials of Sociology: A Down To Earth Approach

What's sociology? The scientific study of human behavior, social groups, and society.
What's society? A group of people who share a culture and a territory.
What are the three elements to using the sociological imagination? History, biography, and social structure.
Who created the sociological imagination? C. Wright Mills.
What's the most important element of the sociological imagination? History.
What are the three things that helped sociology start as an academic discipline? The Industrial Revolution, the Democratic Revolutions, and the rise of science.
What is science? The process by which knowledge is based on evidence that is gathered by testing and observing the natural world.
What's significant about Auguste Comte? Considered to be the founder of sociology (he coined the term).
What makes up the word sociology? Socius- latin, companion/being with others. Logos- greek, study of.
Who's Herbert Spencer? Second founder of sociology, coined the phrase "survival of the fittest" (corresponded with Darwin), racist, ranked societies by race, didn't think people in poverty deserved help.
Who's Karl Marx? Not a Communist, German, two points to his writing: 1) rich and poor people were the only two kinds of people 2) they are locked in class conflict.
Who's Emile Durkheim? French, use of stats in social research, discovered stat. patterns about religion and suicide, anomie- state of normlessness: most likely to succumb to suicide, we need norms/stability.
Who's Max Weber? German, interact with people, disagreed with Durkheim, Verstehen: to understand, studied bureaucracy and religion.
Who's Jane Addams? U.S., sociology and social work, social activist (used socio. knowledge to help other people), Hull House, 1931 Nobel Peace Award.
Who's W.E.B. DuBois? U.S., first African American to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, racial rights, NAACP: National Association of Advancement of Colored People, wrote The Souls of Black Folks, 1961 left U.S. and migrated to Gana.
Who's Harriet Martineau? First female sociologist, prolific author, primarily given credit for translating Auguste Comte's work from French to English.
Who's C. Wright Mills? Public troubles vs. private issues, sociological imagination, society reason for probs/ just got to look closer.
What's macrosociology? Looks at big picture/large scale elements of society.
What's microsociology? Looks at small stuff. Face to face interaction, small group dynamics = symbolic interactionism.
What's empirical? existing in or relating to the physical world, detect it with 5 senses.
What's a variable? an empirical object that can change value, opposite: constant.
What's an independent variable? a factor that is assumed to be responsible for causing the value of some other factor. THE CAUSE.
What's a dependent variable? THE OUTCOME, caused by independent variable.
What's a hypothesis? a statement of a relationship between independent and dependent variables.
What's a theory? a theory is a set of propositions and statements that explains a particular phenomenom.
What's the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? The hypothesis is more speciic; theory is more broad and general. Theory combines all hypotheses.
What's reliability? consistency, same results from instrument when repeated.
What's validity? the ability of an instrument to measure what it's supposed to.
What's quantitative? refers to info that is numerical in nature.
What's qualitive? not inheritly numerical.
What's a survey? a questionnaire, gathers quan. info.
What's participant observation? qual. info.
What's secondary analysis? either or both (analyze data second time)
What's document analysis? qual. (newspapers, journals..) to support/reject hypotheses.
What's unobtrusive measures? qual. info.
What's an experiment? quan. info.
What are ethics? defined as the rules/standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession.
What are the 5 American Sociological Organization code of ethics? 1) professional competence (only do research qualified to do) 2) integrity (honest and truthful) 3) professional and scientific responsibility (open and value-free in research) 4) respect ppl's rights, dignity, and diversity. 5) social responsibility
Created by: mcafcm01