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biodiversity exam 1

chapters 60, 23,25,27, and 28.

what are the 3 levels of biodiversity? Genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity.
Biophilia Innate bond between humans and other living systems.
what is the gradient hypothesis Time hypothesis: community diversity with age. Area hypothesis: larger areas contain more species. Productivity hypothesis: greater production by plants increase animal number.
what is loss of biodiversity? Introduced species: competition, predation, disease. Direct exploitation: over harvesting Habitat destruction: deforestation
Areas rich in Endemic species Hot spots.
indicator species spp whose status provided into an overall health of ecosystem. (lichens)
Umbrella species protecting these species would protect many other spp
flagship species single large or instantly recognizable species
keystone species spp within a community that have a role out of proportion to their abundance.
Chapter 23 COMING UP
Biological evolution a heritable change that in one or more characteristics of a population or species across many generations.
Population members of the same species that are likely to encounter each other, and so have the opportunity to interbreed.
Molecular evolution the molecular changes in genetic material that underlie the phenotypic changes associated with evolution.
Empirical thought relies on observation to form and idea or hypothesis.
Biogeography the study of the geographical distribution of extinct and modern species.
Endemic naturally found in only one particular location.
Convergent evolution when two different species from different lineages show similar characteristics because they occupy similar environments.
Analogous structures when species have similar characteristics even though they are not closely related
alleles different forms of a particular gene, that determine the trait.
Homology a fundamental similarity that occurs due to descent from a common ancestor.
Homologous structures bodily parts considered to be derived from a common ancestor.
Vestigial structures natomical features that have no apparent function but resemble structures of their presumed ancestors.
Anatomical Homologies the theory of evolution provides a sensible framework for understanding the diversity of life.
Developmental homologies the way that animals undergo embryonic development.
Molecular homologies similarities found which indicate that living species evolved from a common ancestor or interrelated group of common ancestors.
Homologous genes when two genes are derived from the same ancestral gene.
Orthologs genes that are homologous yet from different species.
Paralogs two or more homologous genes found within a single species.
Gene family consists of two or more copies of paralogous genes within the genome of a single organism.
Myoglobin stores oxygen in muscle cells.
Hemoglobin found in red blood cells and carries oxygen throughout the body.
Exon shuffle mutation. An exon and the flanking introns are inserted into a gene, thereby producing a new gene that encodes a protein with an additional domain.
Vertical evolution species evolve from pre-existing species by the accumulation of gene mutations, gene duplications, and exon shuffling.
Horizontal gene transfer genetic changes involving the exchange of genetic material among different species.
Bacterial species may carry out three natural mechanisms of gene transfer known as: conjugation, transformation, and transduction.
chapter 25 NEXT
Speciation the mechanisms that promote the formation of new species.
Macroevolution evolutionary changes that create new species and groups of species.
Microevolutionary changes those that occur in a single gene.
Subspecies when two or more groups within the same species display one or more traits that are somewhat different but not enough to warrant their placement into different species.
the characteristics used by biologists to identify a species. Physical or morphological traits, the ability to interbreed, common evolutionary lineages, and ecological factors
Phylogenetic species concept the members of a single species are identified by having a unique combination of characteristics.
Biological species concept a species is a group of individuals whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce viable, fertile offspring but cannot interbreed with members of the other species.
Evolutionary species concept a species is derived from a single lineage that is distinct from other lineages and has its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate. (based on ancestry)
lineage the genetic relationship between an individual or group of individuals and its ancestors.
Ecological species concept a viewpoint that considers a species within its native environment.
ecological niche he unique set of habitat resources that a species requires, as well as its influence on the environment and other species. Within their own nice, members will compete for survival.
prezygotic mechanisms prevent the formation of a zygote. habitat, temporal, behavioral, mechanical, and gametic isolation.
postzygotic mechanisms block the development of a viable and fertile individual after fertilization has taken place. Hybrid inviability, hybrid sterility, and hybrid breakdown.
hybrid inviability when the fertilized egg cannot develop past the embryonic stages.
hybrid sterility when an interspecies hybrid may be viable but sterile.
hybrid breakdown changes in the chromosome structure.
Interspecies hybrid the offspring of two species.
Anagenesis a single species is transformed into a different species over the course of many generations.
Cladogenesis involves the division of a species into two or more species.
Allopatric speciation when gene flow becomes limited between two or more populations. Geographic isolation can promote allopatric speciation.
Adaptive radiation a single ancestral species has evolved into a wide array of descendant species that differ in their habitat, form, or behavior. (form of allopatric speciation)
Hybrid zones where two populations can interbreed.
Sympatric speciation occurs when members of a species that initially occupy the same habitat within the same range diverge into two or more different species.
Gradualism each new species evolves continuously over long spans of time.
Punctuated equilibrium the tempo of evolution is more sporadic. Species exist relatively unchanged for many generations.
Evolutionary-developmental biology a field of biology that compares the development of different organisms in attempt to understand ancestral relationships between organisms and the developmental mechanisms that bring about evolutionary change.
Allometric growth the pattern whereby different parts of the body grow at different rates with respect to each other.
Paedomorphosis the retention of juvenile traits in an adult organism.
Pax6 a master control gene. Controls the expression of many other genes and thereby influences eye development in both rodents and humans.
Chapter 26 and 27 notes now
Taxonomy The field of biology that is concerned with the theory, practice, and rules of classifying living and extinct organisms and viruses.
Systematics the study of biological diversity and the evolutionary relationships among organisms, both extinct and modern.
Hierarchy a system of organization that involves successive levels.
Taxon smaller hierarchical groups.
Kingdom highest and most inclusive taxonomic group.
five kingdom system. Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and animalia.
Binomial Nomenclature the standard method for naming species.
all forms of life are within three domains: Bacteria, Archea, and Eukarya.
Eukarya- four eukaryotic kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
Phyla classes, orders, families, genera.
Chordata Phylum Fishes, reptiles, and mammals.
Extremophiles organisms that occur primarily in extreme habitats.
hyperthermophiles archaea that will not grow when temp is less than 84*C
Extreme Halophiles occupy evaporation ponds used to produce salt from seawater.
Hyperthermophilic An archaeal species that can only grow at extremely high temperatures
Crenarchaeota Organisms that grow in extremely hot or cold habitats.
Euryarchaeota methane producers and extreme halophiles.
Korarchaeota primarily know from DNA sequences found in samples from hot springs.
Nanoarchaeota the hyperthermophile nanoarchaem equitans, which appears to be a parasite of the thermal vent crenarchaeote ignicoccus.
Thylakoids intracellular tubules produced from light energy from cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic bacteria.
Magnetosomes produced from mutant bacteria lacking a functional form of an actin-like protein. Scatter around mutant cells, disrupting their ability to detect a magnetic field.
microbial cells occurs in five major shapes spheres(cocci), rods(bacilli), comma-shaped cells(vibrios), and spiral shaped cells that are either flexible(spirochaetes) or rigid(spirilli).
Biofilms Aggregations of microorganism that secrete adhesive mucilage, thereby gluing themselves to surfaces.
Gram stain procedure to detect and distinguish bacteria more easily.
Pili hreadlike cell surface structures that allow some prokaryotes to twitch or glide across surfaces.
Gas vesicles cyanobacteria and other bacteria that live in aquatic habitats use cytoplasmic structures to adjust their buoyancy.
Binary fission the cells of bacteria and archaea divide by splitting in two.
Akinetes aquatic filamentous cyanobacteria often produce large, food filled akinetes when winter approaches.
Endospores cells having tough protein coats that are produced inside bacterial cells and then released when the enclosing cell dies and breaks down.
Transduction a process when DNA may enter cells by means of viral vectors.
Transformation a process in which microbes are able to take up DNA directly from their environments.
Conjugation a mating process in which some bacteria transmit DNA.
Photoautotrophs able to use light as a source of energy for synthesis of organic compounds from CO2 and H2O, or H2S.
Chemoautotrophs able to use energy obtained by chemical modifications of inorganic compounds to synthesize organic compounds.
Photoheterotrophs able to use light energy to generate ATP, but they must take in organic compounds from their env.
Chemoheterotrophs must obtain organic molecules for both energy and as a carbon source.
Diazotrophs dinitrogen consumers
Nitrogen fixation specialized metabolic process. The removal of nitrogen from the gaseous phase is called fixation. Provide ammonia to the plant partner.
Heterocysts specialized cells in which many cyanobacteria accomplish nitrogen fixation.
Producers synthesize the organic compounds used by other organisms for food.
Decomposers break down dead organisms and organic matter, releasing minerals for uptake by living things.
Methanotrophs aerobic bacteria that maintains the balance of methane in earths atmosphere.
Symbiosis symbiotic associations with eukaryotic organisms.
Pathogens hosts that have disease symptoms due to parasitic microbes.
Chapter 28 NOW
3 major ecological groups of protists algae, protozoa, fungus
Plankton swimming or floating protists. Also includes bacteria, viruses, and small animals.
Phytoplankton the photosynthetic protists in plankton
Protozoan plankton heterotrophic plankton.
Periphyton communities of microorganisms that are attached by mucilage to underwater surfaces.
Flagellates protists that use flagella to move under water.
Ciliates protists that move by means of cilia.(tiny hairlike extensions on the outside of cells)
Amoebae protists that move by pseudopodia.(involves extending protist cytoplasm)
phagotrophy heterotrophic protists that specialize in phagotrophy.(particle eating)
osmotrophs Protists that rely on osmotrophy.(uptake of small organic molecules)
autotrophs photosynthetic protists. (organisms that can make their own organic nutrients)
mixotrophs protists that are able to use autotrophy, phagotrophy, or osmotrophy to obtain organic nutrients.
saprobes heterotrophic protists that feed on nonliving organic material that function as decomposers.
zygotic life style unicellular protists reproduce sexually this way.
sporic life cycles multicellular protists reproduce sexually this way.
gametic life cycles diatoms display this. All cells except the games are diploid, and gametes are produced by meiosis.
climate sexual reproduction ciliates reproduce this way. Conjugation.
Created by: Riley21291