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Communication 1305

Chapter 1 & 2

What is communication? The process by which individuals use symbols, sign, and behaviors to exchange information.
What is the "functional perspective"? How we communicate in relationships.
What is "interdependence"? What we do affects others, and vice versa.
What is "affiliation"? Feelings we have for others. *relates to: Affection (emotions/feelings)
What are the 6 characteristics of communication? Symbolic. Code is shared. Culturally bound. Intentionality. Channel. Transactional.
What does "symbolic" communication mean? Language or behaviors are used. Ex: vendor greets customer with a nod - or - a look, gesture, joke (affection), a secret handshake.
What does "code" communication mean? Symbols joined to create a meaningful message. *encoding: producing and sending a message. *decoding: receiving and making sense of a message. Ex: speaking the same language - or - body movements in sports.
What does "culture" communication mean? Shared belief, practices, values. *Co-Cultures: smaller groups within cultures Ex: Anna is a navajo, american, married, lawyer...etc.
What does "intentional" communication mean? Ex: blushing (involuntary) *intended/unintended messages. *may be spontaneous or intentional.
What does "channeling" communication mean? Method of communication. Ex: computers, audio/media channels.
What does "transactional" communication mean? Messages cannot be reversed. Ex: Mel Gibson's Jewish remarks.
What is "ethics"? The study of morals.
Linear Model a SENDER originates the MESSAGE, which is carried through a CHANNEL.
Interaction Model *expands on the "linear model" by adding FEEDBACK.
Competent Communication Model A TRANSACTIONAL model incorporating 3 contextual spheres in which individuals communicate. *Relational. Situational. Cultural.
What are "cognitions"? The thoughts that communicators have about themselves.
Relational Context: True meaning of words/actions. *depends on who it's from. Ex: a kiss from your mom or from your spouse.
Situational Context: Situations surrounding social environments, etc. Ex: Wife shrieks when husband asks what's for dinner. Wife shrieks, and he does not know whether she is mad, stressed, etc. (dinner situation)
Cultural Context: How you view yourself as a member of a certain group/culture. Ex: Hannah comes from a culture where you are respectful to elders & Cole has been accustomed to be rude to all people.
What are "dyads"? pairs of individuals.
What is "perception"? the COGNITIVE (thoughts communicators have about themselves) process that helps us make sense of the world.
Communication Processing: the means by which we GATHER, ORGANIZE, and EVALUATE the information we receive.
What are "schemas"? Mental structures we use to connect bits of information together. *helps us understand how things work, and how to act. Ex: Adam's comparison of his old girlfriend to the new lady he meets.
3 Challenges presented by Schemas: MINDLESSNESS *Mindlessness: a PASSIVE, automatic response. Ex: you do not have to consciously think about GREETING A FRIEND.
3 Challenges presented by Schemas: SELECTIVE PERCEPTION *Selective Perception: allowing BIAS to influence thoughts. Ex: Person interested in economics will listen to political opinion, and others not interested won't.
3 Challenges presented by Schemas: UNDUE INFLUENCE Undue Influence: giving other sources TOO MUCH to say. Ex: people give UNDUE INFLUENCE to parents, simply because we have so much respect for them.
What are "attributions"? Personal characteristics that are used to explain other people's behavior.
Interaction Appearance Theory: How people change their perception of someone's appearance as they spend more time together. Ex: You like someone more b/c you discovered their sense of humor.
Fundamental Attribution Error: Our tendency to assume that another person's wrong behavior is due to an internal flaw, while attributing our own failures to external causes. Ex: Carla failed the midterm b/c she was too lazy to study.
What is "cultural myopia"? blinds us to alternative points of view. Ex: individuals who fail to consider other cultural perspectives.
What is "stereotyping"? generalization about people. Ex: fitting individuals into an existing schema.
What is "prejudice"? ill will toward a particular group coupled with a sense of one's own superiority. Ex: usually based on negative stereotypes and feeling of superiority.
What is "self-concept"? Who we think we are.
Social Comparison Theory: comparing ourselves to media figures (actors, models, etc.) often in negative ways. Ex: feeling ugly/fat next to a model.
What is "self-esteem"? How one feels about oneself in a particular situation.
What is "self-efficacy"? The ability to predict, based on our self-esteem, one's effectiveness in a communication situation.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy a prediction that causes an individual to alter his/her behavior in a way that makes the prediction more likely to occur. Ex: Josh's insecurity at a party.
What is "self-actualization"? the feelings and thoughts you get when you know that you have negotiated a communication situation as well as you possibly could. (HIGH PERFORMANCE) Ex: Counselors confrontation with the school teacher.
What is "self-adequacy"? Feelings of contentment, or desire of self-improvement. (ADEQUATE PERFORMANCE) Ex: Phil's satisfaction with his speech, although he feels he could do better.
What is "self-denigration"? Criticizing or attacking yourself. (POOR PERFORMANCE) Ex: Hunter feels like he cannot do anything right compared to his sister.
What is "self-presentation"? Intentional communication designed to show elements for self-strategic purposes. Ex: you are trying to impress your journalism co-workers, so you mention names of popular authors you've worked with.
What is "self-monitoring"? tendency to watch our environments and others in it for cues as to how to present ourselves in particular situations. Ex: noticing persona who pays attention and the one who doesn't (different body languages and skills).
What is "self-disclosure"? when you reveal yourself to others by sharing information about yourself. Ex: explaining to someone (deeply) why you became a vegetarian.
Created by: kserrano005