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Anthropology Exam 1

Anthropology the study of human species and its immediate ancestors
acculturation the exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into first hand contact; cultural patterns of one or both groups may change but each group remains distinct
Archaeological Anthropology the study of human behavior and cultural pattern and processes through the cultures material remains
Core Values key, basic, or central values that integrate a culture and help distinguish it form others
cultural relativism values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect; methodlogical. understand method of culture to understand culture
Biological Anthropology the study of human biological variation in time and space including evolution, genetics, growth and development, and primatology
Cultural Anthropology the study of human society and culture; describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural
diffusion borrowing of cultural traits between societies either directly or through intermediaries
Culture distinctly human; transmitted through learning; traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs
Ethnography fieldwork in a particular culture
Ethnology crosscultural comparison; the comparative study of ethnographic data, society, and culture
ethnocentrism the tendency to view ones own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one's own standards
General Anthropology the field of anthropology as a whole, consisting of cultural, archaelogical, biological, and linguistic anthropology
Holistic interested in the whole of the human condition: past present future; biology, society, language, and culture
generality culture pattern or trait that exists in some but not all socieities
Linguistic Anthropology the descriptive, comparative, and historical study of language and its linguistic similarities and differences in time, space, and society.
globalization accelerating independence of nations in a world system linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation
Subcultures different cultural traditions associated with with subgroups in the same complex society
symbols something verbal or nonverbal that arbitraily and by convention stands ffor something else, with which it has no necessary or natural connection
universal something that exists in every culture
emic the research strategy that focuses on local explanations and criteria of significance
etic the research strategy that emphasizes the ethnographers rather than the locals explanations, categories, and criteria of significance.
genealogical method procedures by which ethnographers discover and record conections of kinship, descent, and marriage, using diagrams and symbols
open-ended and scheduled interviews
key cultural consultant person who is an expert on a particular aspect of social life
longitudinal research long-term study of a community region society culrure or other unit usually based on repeated visits
Participant observation
qualitative research
reflexive ethnography
survey research characteristic research procedure among social scientists other than anthropologists. studies society throgh samplings, statistical analysis, and impersonal data collection
achieve status
ascribed status
assimilation the process of change that a minority group may experience when it moves to a country where another culture dominates the minority is incorporated into the dominant culture to the point that it no longer exists as a seperate cultural unit
cultural colonialism the political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time
Discrimination policies and practices that harm a group and its members
ethnicity identification with and feeling part of an ethnic group and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affiliation
multiculturalism the view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desireable; a multicultural society socializes individuals not only into the dominant (national) culture but also into an ethnic culture
plural society a society that combines ethnic contrasts and economic interdependence of the ethnic gorups
prejudice devauling (looking down on) a group because of its assumed beahcior values capabilities attitudes or other attributes
Created by: breakerstcu