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SPA 2109: week 5

Language Disorders Part One

when do first words appear? around 12 months. first words with intentional meaning around this time.
when does vocabulary explosion happen? 18-20 months.
during what time is most of morphology developed? between the ages of 3 and 5.
three of the most abnormally developing children: - downs syndrome - SLI children - williams syndrome children
where is DNA stored? in chromosomes!
humans have how many chromosomes and how many pairs? 46 chromosomes 23 pairs.
female/ male chromosomes female: xx male: xy x chromosomes very large, y very small.
what are genes made up off? sequences of amino acids that occur on chromosomes.
genes give instructions for making what? proteins!
how many genes in the human genome? ~35k.
phenylketonuria (PKU) baby cant metabolize certain proteins which build up to toxic levels causing mental retardation and death.
how are alleles created? when a DNA mutation is passed onto the next generation. it leads to alleles (variants) of the affected genes.
how does a linkage study start? starts with a SET of syblings in which atleast two have the target disorder.
what three things do twin studies assess? ACE Model. (sometimes HCE) -Additive Genetics (or H heretability) -Common Environment -Unique Environment
how frequent is autism? in males versus females? 1 in 150 births. 4x as common in males. (actually highly intelligent females).
which areas does autism affect? communication social and repetative restricted behavior.
what areas does aspergers affect? social restrictive repetative behavior no communication problem.
what areas does PDD and NOS effect? a little bit of everything but not eough to be aspergers or autism.
what are the two primary challanges of social communication for people with autism spectrum disorders? 1) joint attention 2) understanding symbols.
what genes have been known to cause autism? 2, 3, 7, 15, x.
risk of reoccurance of autism in syblings? in all autism spectrum disorders? 3-5% for autism. up to 10% for spectrum.
how often in autistic spectrum people are the genetic reasons unknown? 65-75 percent.
how often do seizures in autistic people occur? 33 percent.
what is the main difference between dyslexia and SLI? SLI includes both comprehension AND production, while dyslexia is mainly comprehenision.
how low does comphrehension have to be in order for it be considered an LI? less then 80 percent.
5 causes of SLI 1. bad auditory processing (cant tell between sounbds and words, slow) 2. bad phonological processing. 3. bad working memory, esp. phonological (verb batum) memory 4.bad linguistic processing ability 5.cognitive processing defecits.
three subtypes of SLI 1. apraxic (frontal love damage) 2. phonological (like tones, takes em longer) 3. grammatical (10-20 percent, especially pronominal refrence "you, me, she" thjings that are variable.
3 brain differences in SLI 1. smaller then normal right hemisphere 2. smaller left brocas area, or deforemed. 3. same sized language hemispheres, left wasnt bigger.
what two neurological findings predict the severity of SLI? 1. fine motor movement 2. abnormal motor reflexes.
what did MRIs of SLI patints point out? enlarged ventricles and hyperintensities (bright white spots in the white matter). large butterfly gaps (caused by enlarged ventirciles) mean there is less white mattere, therefore less connections.
MRI proved taht which part of the brain affected in SLI patients? middle temporal gyrus (grammar) brocas area (speech creation)
what two chromosomes are likely to cause SLI? 16 and 19.
what gene is supposed to cause apraxia? fox p2 on chromosome 7
how hereditiable are reading problerms? 44-77 percent.
Created by: pandaxx