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SW Licensure I

QuestionAnswer
Parataxic distortions neo-freudian - causes maladaptive behavior stemming from misperceptions that involve responding to a person as though he or she were a significant person from the past and are due to arrest or persistence
What is Crisis theory? disruption of a person's normal or stable state. Manifestations include emotional upset, biophysical upset, cognitive disturbance, and behavioral changes
What are three categories of crisis origin? situational, maturational, and cultural/socio-cultural
What are the stages of crisis? 1. the hazardous event, 2. the vulnerable state (reaction), 3. the precipitating factor (last straw), 4. active crisis state , 5. reintegration
What are the three components of Freud's personality theory? Id (birth - life drives), ego (6mo - defers gratification, rational thinking and planning), and superego (4-5 yrs - internalization of values, conscious - attempts to block socially unacceptable id drives)
What are the 5 psychosexual stages of development (Freud) Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Defense mechanism - reaction formation person avoids an anxiety evoking instinct by expressing its opposite
Defense mechanism - displacement transfer of instinctual drive from its original target to a less threatening target
Defense mech - sublimation type of displacement where an unacceptable impulse is diverted into a socially acceptable, even admirable activity
What is the object relation approach? personality theory - Kohut, Mahler,
What is an object introject? the mental representation of a person (object-rel)
self-representation and object representation mental image of the self, and mental image of another person
4 stages of object relations 1. normal autism (1st mo, infant is oblivious to envi), 2. symbiotic phase (2-8 mo - inf is fused with mother, no differentiation), 3. differentiation (7mo - self and object begins to seperate), 4. int/rapproacht (2-3 yrs - perm sense of self and object)
object relations & borderline personality developmental deficiencies lead to splitting/ unstable self image. individual may have immature, unconstrained agressive feelings, and irrational thoughts - feeling persecuted or unloved
Alfred Adler Individual psychology - behavior is purposeful and motivated by a person's future goals rather than determined by past events. Each individual has a set of motives, traits, values, interests
Jung Analytical psychotherapy behavior is determined by past events and future goals and aspirations - conscious and unconscious. extraversion and introversion attitudes, and four basic psychological functions
Humanistic psychotherapy 1. phenomenological approach - must understand person's subjective experience, emphasis on wholeness of individual, focus on curent behaviors, believe in individual's strengths, reject diagnosis and labels
Narrative therapy focus on understanding how experience creates expectations and how expectations then shape experience through the creation of stories - social constructionism
Gestalt therapy Fritz Perls - each individual is capable of assuming personal responsibility for her own thoughts, feelings, and actions and living as an integrated whole - emphasizes personal responsibility (humanistic psychotherapy)
reality therapy William Glasser - people can take control of their own lives - behavior originates from individual rather than from external forces
Solution focused therapy short-term (5-10 sessions) - client defines goals, focus on what is possible and changeable, miracle question. is not concerned with roots of individual's or family's problem
Erik Ericksons' 5 stages of development 1. trust vs. mistrust (0-1), 2. autonomy vs. shame/doubt (2-3), 3. initiative vs. guilt (3-5), 4. industry vs. inferiority (6-12yrs), 5. identity vs. role confusion (12-18yrs)
axis 1 clinical disorders and other focused conditions
axis 2 personality disorders and mental retardation
axis 3 general medical conditions
axis 4 psycho social and enviornmental problems
dual diagnosis client as both a major psychiatric disorder and substance abuse or dependence
3 categories of mental disorders 1. due to general medical condition, 2. substance related disorders, 3. primary mental disorders
aphasia difficulty with names and words
apraxia difficulty with motor acts (cooking, dressing, cleaning)
agnosia can't recognize objects, family members, etc
classical conditioning neutral (conditioned) stimulus is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus - eventually the neutral stimulus alone elicits the response that is naturally produced by unconditioned stimulus
classical extinction gradual elimination of classicaly conditioned response by repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus
congruent communication seriously contradicts any of the others communication in which two or more messages are sent via different lvels, but none of the messages
conjoint family therapy single therapist treating the marriage by seeing both spouses together in the same session (treatment of two or more persons in a session together)
counterconditioning elimination of a response by pairing the response or associated stimuli with a stimulus that naturally elicits an incompatible or more desirable response
differentiation extended family systems therapy (bowen) - seperation of an individual's intellectual and emotional functioning from that of their family members
double bind communication contradictory or logically inconsistent communications from the same person along with understanding that the inconsistency must not be commented
Roger's facilitative conditions person-centered therapists - 3 core conditions - empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive regard
Field Theory - Lewin focus on the total psychological environment and attempts to explain behavior on the basis of dynamic interactions among life forces
functional analysis a behavioral assessment that includes an evaluation of the target behavior as well as its antecedents and consequences. results are used to select an appropriate intervention and monitor its effects
general systems theory the "whole" can be understood only in terms of the organization and interactions of its components. systems could be open or closed and receives input from the envi.
negative reinforcement operant conditioning - performance of a response terminates an aversive condition or stimulus. negative reinforcement serves to increase the occurrence of a behavior
positive reinforcement operant conditioning - presence of a response or behavior elicits a rewarding condition so that the response or behavior is strenthend or maintained
metacomplementary relationship reciprocal relationship where one individual allows or forces the other to be in charge
metacommunication every message has two levels - report and commandnonverbal message (command) commenting on the intent of a verbal statement (report)
Johari Window graphic model of interpersonal behavior that is applied to many different theories of group interaction and social psychology
what are some common tetragens? alcohol, narcotics, lead, cocaine, nicotine
what are kubler ross' five stages of death 1.denial, 2. anger, 3. bargining, 4. depression, 5. acceptance
4 patterns of attachement 1. secure, 2. insecure (anxious/avoidant), 3. insecure (anxious/ambivalent), 4. disorganized/disoriented
What are the four nested levels in bronfenbrenners theory? Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem
Four stages of adjustment to retirement - Atchley 1. pre-retirement (making plans for the future), 2. honeymoon 3. disenchantment (novelty wears off), 4. re-orientation phase (create a satisfactory and realistic lifestyle)
Levinson's four periods of the lifespan 1. infancy through adolescense, 2. early adulthood, 5. middle adulthood, 4. late adulthood
Piagets constructivism Cognitive development. People actively construct higher levels of knowledge from elements contributed through biological maturation and the environment
what is stranger anxiety? 6-8 mo children become very anxious and fearful in the presence of strangers. It continues to age 2 and then diminishes
How many stages are there in prenatal development? three
Piaget's cognitive stages 1. sensorimotor (0-2y), 2. preoperational (2-7 yr), 3. concrete operational (7-11 yr), 4. formal operational (11+ yr)
What is insecure (anxious/avoidant) attachment? Avoidant baby shows little distress when his or her mother leaves the room and avoids or ignores her when she returns
What is insecure (anxious/ambivalent) attachement Baby becomes disturbed whenleft alone with a stranger but is ambivalent when the mother returns and may become angry and resist her attempts at physical contact
what is a tetragen? substance that crosses the placental barrier and causes defects in the embryo or fetus
what is the babinski reflex? toes fan out and upward when soles of the feet are tickled
what is the babkin reflex? close eyes, open mouth, and turns head to side when pressure is applied to both palms
what is holophasic speech? 1-2 yr children - speech which consist of single words and express whole phrases and sentences
what is social learning theory? Proposes that learning is a result of a combination of observational learning and differential reinforcement.
What is the Vygotskyian approach? Psychologist acknowledge the impact of biology on cognitive development, but placed greater emphasis on cultural factors
What part of the brain is responsible for high level cognitive functions, language, spatial skills, and complex motor activities? cerebal cortex
anaclitec depression effect of early institutionalization (hospitalism) - infants. retarded physical development, disruption of perceptual motor skills and language. caused more by lack of social contact
Kohlberg's stages of moral development 3 levels of 2 stages each: 1. Pre-conventional (obedience and self-interest orientation), 2. conventional (social norms and law and order morality), 3. post-conventional (social contract orientation and principled conscience)
Piaget's four stages of development 1. sensorimotor - rooting, sucking, object permanence, 2. preoperational stage - 2-7, acquisition of motor skills, magical thinking, 3. concrete op stage 7-12, think logically but only with practical aids, 4. formal op stage - 12+ abstract reasoning
dysphoria depressed mood, anxiety, irritability, restlessness. opposite of euphoria
euthymic mood mood in the normal range, implies abscence of depressed or elevated mood
dyssomnia primary disorders of sleep or wakefulness characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia as the major presenting symptoms. Disorders of amount, quality, timing of sleep
ataxia partial or complete loss of coordination of voluntary muscular movement
retrograde amnesia loss of memory of events that occurred before onset of etiological condition or agent
conversion disorder motor or perceptual symptoms suggesting physical disorder, but which reflect emotional conflicts
dyskinesia distortion of voluntary movements with involuntary muscular activity
ideas of reference feeling that casual incidents and external events have a particular and unusual meaning that is specific to the person
aphonia inability to produce speech sounds that are required the use of the larynx that is not due to a lesion in the central nervous system
cataplexy episodes of sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone resulting in individual collapsing, often in association with intense emotions such as laughter, anger, fear, or surprisesc
schizoid personality disorder detachment of social relationships, limited range of emotions in interpersonal situations, preference for social isolation (like autism)
depersonalization disorder feelings of unreality/detachment, high co-morbidity with anxiety and mood disorders
major depressive disorder depressed mood lasting more than 2 weeks, feeling worthless or indecisive, loss of pleasure or interest in usual activities (anhedonia). recurrent episoes more common
histrionic mood disorder overly dramatic, sensational, and sexually provocative. impulsive and need to b at the center of attention
antisocial personality disorer noncompliance with social norms, violates rights of others, irresponsible, impulsive, and deceitful
schizotypal personality disorder odd and unusual behavior and appearance, socially isolated, highly suspicious, magical thinking, ideas of reference, illusions. many meet criteria for major dep.
cyclothymiac disorder chronic version of bipolar disorder, manic/dep episodes less severe, persisting manic or depressive states, 2 or more years adult, more than 1 yr child. high risk for bipolar I or II
ego psychology base in psychoanalysis with focus on ego functions and adaptations. defense mechanisms, adaption to expected envi, ego master, and separation/individuation
pica disorder persistent eating of nonnuritive substances such as paint, hair, sand, cloth, etc. without aversion to food. seen in pregnant women, small children, and developmentally disabled
rumination disorder regurgitation and rechewing of food. affecting only infants, young children, and people with cognitive disabilities.
encopresis repeated passage of feces in inappropriate places
enuresis repeated voiding of urine during day or night in bedding or clothes
reactive attachment disorder a lack of attachment or indiscriminate, superficial attachments
schizophreniform disorder illness of less than six months. greater likelihood of an acute onset preceded by turmoil/high stress. range of prognoses characterized by absence of blunted or flat affect.
malingering ndividual fabricating or exaggerating the symptoms of mental or physical disorders for a variety of motives.
prolixin typical antipsychotic drug used for the treatment of psychoses such as schizophrenia and acute manic phases of bipolar disorde
somaticization disorder chronically and persistently complain of varied physical symptoms that have no identifiable physical origin. One common general etiological explanation is that internal psychological conflicts are unconsciously expressed as physical signs.
echopraxia tic, repetitive involuntary movements
echolalia tourettes, repetitive involuntary speech/sounds
Created by: 8101608 on 2009-07-21



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