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Matter Anything that takes up space
Mass The quantity of matter an object has
Elements Substances that cannot be broken into simpler types of matter
Atom The smallest part of an element. Still retains all the original properties of the element
Nucleus (central core) comprised fo protons and neutrons.
Protons Particles with a positive electrical charge
Neutrons Have no electrical charge- they are neutral
Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. An ordering device for the periodic table.
Electron Has a negative charge
In atoms there are an equal number of protons and electrons so that the overall charge is zero
Molecule When atoms of one element are combined with atoms of another element
Compounds Elements combine with other elements.
Chemical reactions Atoms undergo to come to a stable state, some bonds are broken, rearrange, form new bonds.
Covalent Bond Two or more atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
Ionic bond An electron from one atom is transferred to an atom of another element. An attraction between the + and - ion
Ion An atom with an electrical charge
Free energy Yields a net release
Activation energy The amount of energy necessary to begin any chemical reaction
Catalyst A chemical substance that decreases the amount of activation necessary for a chemical reaction
Oxidation reaction Occurs when an atom loses on or more electrons, resulting in a positive charge.
Reduction reaction An atom gains one or more electrons, resulting in a negative charge.
3 kinds of matter gases, liquids, and solids
kinetic energy Is the energy of an object in motion. All forms of matter are constantly in motion.
Particles of Gas Are far apart, move rapidly, and have random motion.
Gas pressure The result of billions of particles colliding with an object simultaneously
Vacuum Empty space with no particles and no pressure
Liquid Forms when the temp of the gas lowers enought for condensation to occur
Vaporization When a liquid can be turned into a gas
Evaporation When a liquid can be turned into a gas and does not include boiling.
Solid Restricted movement, orderly, repeating.
With Density The lower the higher density it has
Archimedes principle An object placed under water desplace a volume of water equal to its own volume
Gas A is noticed one minute before gas B Gas B has a higher density than that of gas A. Gas B has the higher density so it would travel slower
Charles Law The volume of a gas varies directly with the absolute temp.
Boyles Law The volume varies inversely with the pressure at a constant temp.
ICE Choose 3 lower levels
Fridge door left open for one hour The room temp will increase
Water and Aluminum Water heats slower and aluminum cools faster
The best electrical conductor Metals (left side of table)
Isotopes have different number of neutrons
Comparing toasters the one generating the most heat is higher voltage and higher resistance
An electric current can be carried by movement of electrons and ions
The more acid the smaller the number
The stronger the base the bigger the number
A difference of one pH unit represents a concentraion difference of 10
A difference of two pH units represents a concentration difference of 100
pH of 7 is a neutral salt
Land on the moon you will have the same mass on the moon as on earth
When Pushing or hoisting someing up directly the amount of work by either is the same
A car traveling at 60mph comes to a rapid stop two types of energy most involved are kinetic and heat
A person swings a ball in a circle and the string breaks near the point of attachment the ball with travel in a straight line
Involve both chemical and physical changes An egg is hard boiled
Actinides the row of elements below the periodic table
Adhesion molecular attraction between dissimilar molecules
Aerobic with oxygen
Anaerobic without oxygen
Agglutination clumping of foreign cells
Agonist muscle that bears the major responsibility for effecting a particular movement
Alpha particle a cluster of 2 protons and 2 neutrons emitted from a nucleus in one type of radioactivity
Amnion fetal membrane that forms a fluid filled sac around the embryo
Anion an atom or molecule with a - charge
Articulation the junction of two or more bones
Atomic weight the weight in grams of one mole
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) rate at which energy is expended by the body
Bowmans capsule a network of capillaries encased in a membrane in the kidney for purpose of filtraion
Cathode the + electrode at which reduction occurs
cation an atom or molecule with a + charge
Colloid suspension that does not separate on standing
Emulsion suspension of two liquids which are incapable of mixing or attaining homogeneity
Endocrine system internal organs
Erthrocytes red blood cells
Faradays Law the amount of a substance to the quantity of electric charge
Fermentation release of energy from sugar without the use of oxygen
Fulcrum the fixed point on which a lever moves when a force is applied
Hemoglobin oxygen transporting component of erythrocytes
Mast cells immune cells that function to detect foreign substances in the tissue
Mitosis cell duplication
Molarity the number of moles of solute in 1 liter of solution
Solute the substance that is dissolved in a solution
Solvent the host in a solution
Tidal air amount of air during normal breathing
Ventrally in the front, near the bottom
Accuracy a reflection of how near the actual measurement the taken measure is.
Precision a reflection of how close multiple measurements are to one another.
Density is the mass of the object in relation to its volume
Created by: Kos03