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Epidemiology Quiz 1

Primary Prevention Prevention of the occurrence of the disease.
Secondary Prevention Early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease.
Tertiary Prevention Treatment and rehabilitation to maximize capabilities.
Prevention - Population-based approach A preventative measure is applied widely to an entire population, must be relatively inexpensive and noninvasive.
Prevention - High-risk approach Targets high risk groups with preventative measure. May be more expensive and is often more invasive or inconvenient than population-based approaches.
Modes of Transmission Direct - person to person by means of direct contact. Indirect - occurs through a common vehicle such as contaminated air or water supplies, or by a vector such as a mosquito.
Epidemiologic triad of disease Host - example: a person Agent - example: a bacterium Environment - example: contaminated water supply
Clinical Disease characterized by signs and symptoms
Preclinical disease Not yet clinically apparent, but is destined to progress to clinical disease
Subclinical disease Not clinically apparent not destined to become clinically apparent. Often diagnosed by serologic response or culture of organism.
Persistent (chronic) disease Person fails to "shake off" infection, and it persists for years/life.
Latent disease Infection with no active multiplication of the agent.
Endemic the habitual presence of a disease within a given geographic area
Epidemic the occurrence in a community or region of a group of illnesses of similar nature, clearly in excess of normal expectancy, and derived from a common source
Pandemic a worldwide epidemic
Herd immunity the resistance of a group of people to an attack by a disease to which a large proportion of the members of the group are immune
Incubation period the interval from receipt of infection to the time of onset of clinical illness
Attack rate (number of people at risk in whom a certain illness develops)/(total number of people at risk)
Rate Tell us how fast a disease is occurring in a population. Proportion that includes a measure of time.
Proportions Tell us what fraction of the population is affected. Numerator is in the denominator.
Incidence Rate/Cumulative Incidence (Number of NEW cases of disease that occur during a specified period of time)/(total population at risk)
Incidence Density (number of NEW cases of a disease over a specified period of time)/(total person-time)
Attack Rate not truly a rate (no time span specified), actually a proportion (number of people exposed who became ill)/(number of people exposed)
Prevalence the number of affected persons present in the population at a specific time/number of persons in the population at that time. I.E. What what proportion of the population is affected by the disease at the time.
Point prevalence/Prevalence # of cases at time of study/# of people in defined population
Period prevalence (# of existing cases at start of period + new cases added during study period)/ # of people in defined population
Incidence x duration of disease (in steady state) Prevalence
Crude mortality rate (# of deaths during a specified time period) /(# of persons in the population during time period)
age-specific mortality rate # of deaths in given age group during a time period/# of individuals in specified age group
case-fatality rates (percent) # of deaths from given disease/# of individuals with the disease
cause-specific mortality # of deaths from a given disease during a time period/# of live individuals in population during time period
Infant mortality rate # of deaths of children < 1 yr old/# of live births in same year
Proportionate mortality RATE # of deaths from a particular cause in time period/total number of deaths during that time
Proportionate mortality RATIO proportion of deaths of specific cause in exposed popn/proportion of deaths of specified cause in unexposed pop
Abortion rate # of abortions/# of women 15-44 years of age
Abortion ratio # of abortions/# of live births
Standardized rates Alternative to Crude Rate when a summary rate is needed for comparison between two populations
Standard Mortality Ratio (SMR) observed deaths/expected deaths x 100 (expressed as a %)
Proportional Mortality Ratio (PMR) proportion of deaths from a specific cause relative to all deaths in a population (e.g. deaths in Washington from cancer vs. deaths in all of US from cancer)
Descriptive studies Descriptive epidemiology presents the general characteristics of the distribution of a disease (person/place/time)
Analytic studies Analytic studies test a specific hypothesis to determine whether factor influences risk of a disease
Birth defects # of infants with congenital abnormality/ total live births
Created by: aedonev