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Science Final, G:6

All the vocabulary you need for the 6th Grade Science Final Exam.

QuestionAnswer
Humidity The state or quality of being humid.
Barometer An instrument measuring atmospheric pressure.
Atmospheric Pressure The pressure exerted by the weight of the atmosphere, which at sea level has a mean value of 101,325 pascals.
Meteorology The branch of science concerned with the processes and phenomena of the atmosphere.
Cold Front The boundary of an advancing mass of cold air, in particular the trailing edge of the warm sector of a low-pressure system.
Warm Front The boundary of an advancing mass of warm air, in particular the leading edge of the warm sector of a low-pressure system.
Thermometer An instrument for measuring and indicating temperature.
Atmosphere The envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another.
Atmosphere Layer #1 - Troposphere The lowest region of the atmosphere, extending from the earth's surface to a height of about 4-6 miles.
Atmosphere Layer #2 - Stratosphere The layer of the earth's atmosphere above the troposphere, extending to about 50 km above the earth's surface.
Atmosphere Layer #3 - Mesosphere The region of the earth's atmosphere above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere, between about 30 and 50 miles in altitude.
Atmosphere Layer #4 - Thermosphere The region of the atmosphere above the mesosphere and below the height at which the atmosphere ceases to have the properties of a continuous medium. The thermosphere is characterized throughout by an increase in temperature with height.
Atmosphere Layer #5 - Ionosphere The layer of the earth's atmosphere that contains a high concentration of ions and free electrons and is able to reflect radio waves. It lies above the mesosphere and extends from about 50 to 600 miles above the earth's surface.
Atmosphere Layer #6 - Exosphere The outermost region of a planet's atmosphere.
Precipitation Rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to the ground.
Vapor A substance diffused or suspended in the air.
The Universal Solvent Water
Capillarity The tendency of a liquid in a capillary tube or absorbent material to rise or fall as a result of surface tension.
Surface Tension The tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface layer by the bulk of the liquid, which tends to minimize surface area.
Polarity The property of having poles or being polar.
Polar Having electrical or magnetic polarity.
Water Cycle The cycle of processes by which water circulates between the earth's oceans, atmosphere, and land, involving precipitation as rain and snow, drainage in streams and rivers, and return to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration.
Radiation The emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles.
Conduction The process by which heat or electricity is directly transmitted through a substance when there is a difference of temperature or of electrical potential between adjoining regions, without movement of the material.
Convection The movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat.
Reflect To throw back (heat, light, or sound) without absorbing it.
Refraction The fact or phenomenon of light, radio waves.
Wavelength The distance between successive crests of a wave.
Regular Reflection (Specular Reflection) The mirror-like reflection of light from a surface, in which light from a single incoming direction is reflected into a single outgoing direction.
Diffuse Reflection The reflection of light from an uneven or granular surface such that an incident ray is seemingly reflected at a number of angles.
Electromagnetic Spectrum The range of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends.
Atom The basic unit of a chemical element.
Molecule A group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.
Acid A chemical substance that neutralizes alkalis, dissolves some metals, and turns litmus red; typically, a corrosive or sour-tasting liquid of this kind.
Alkali (Base) A chemical compound that neutralizes or effervesces with acids and turns litmus blue; typically, a caustic or corrosive substance of this kind such as lime or soda.
Solid Firm and stable in shape; not liquid or fluid.
Liquid Having a consistency like that of water or oil.
Gas An airlike fluid substance which expands freely to fill any space available, irrespective of its quantity.
Crust The outermost layer of rock of which a planet consists.
Mantle The region of the earth's interior between the crust and the core, believed to consist of hot, dense silicate rocks.
Core The dense central region of a planet, esp. the nickel–iron inner part of the earth.
Asthenosphere The upper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithosphere, in which there is relatively low resistance to plastic flow and convection is thought to occur.
Lithosphere The rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle.
Seismic Wave An elastic wave in the earth produced by an earthquake or other means.
Pangaea A supercontinent comprising all the continental crust of the earth, postulated to have existed in late Paleozoic and Mesozoic times before it broke into Gondwana and Laurasia.
Alfred Wegener Notable for his theory of continental drift
Mid-Ocean Ridge A long, seismically active submarine ridge system situated in the middle of an ocean basin and marking the site of the upwelling of magma associated with seafloor spreading.
Seafloor Spreading The formation of new areas of oceanic crust, which occurs through the upwelling of magma at midocean ridges and its subsequent outward movement on either side.
Magma Hot fluid or semifluid material below or within the earth's crust from which lava and other igneous rock is formed by cooling.
Lava Hot molten or semifluid rock erupted from a volcano or fissure, or solid rock resulting from cooling of this.
Hard Solid, firm, and resistant to pressure; not easily broken, bent, or pierced.
Streak A long, thin line or mark of a different substance or color from its surroundings.
Luster A gentle sheen or soft glow.
Fracture The physical appearance of a freshly broken rock or mineral.
Cleavage The splitting of rocks or crystals in a preferred plane or direction.
Crystal Structure An unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal.
Inorganic Not arising from natural growth.
Igneous Having solidified from lava or magma.
Sedimentary Of or relating to sediment.
Erosion The process of eroding or being eroded by wind, water, or other natural agents
Deposition The action of depositing something.
Compact Closely and neatly packed together; dense.
Cementation The binding together of particles or other things by cement.
Metamorphic Denoting rock that has undergone transformation by heat, pressure, or other natural agencies.
Rock Cycle An idealized cycle of processes undergone by rocks in the earth's crust, involving igneous intrusion, uplift, erosion, transportation, deposition as sedimentary rock, metamorphism, remelting, and further igneous intrusion.
Season Each of the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) marked by particular weather patterns and daylight hours, resulting from the earth's changing position with regard to the sun.
Axis An imaginary line about which a body rotates.
Rotation The action of rotating around an axis or center.
Revolution An instance of revolving.
Orbit The curved path of a celestial object or spacecraft around a star, planet, or moon.
Light Year A unit of astronomical distance equivalent to the distance that light travels in one year, which is 5,878,606,438 miles.
Moon The natural satellite of the earth.
Universe All existing matter and space considered as a whole; the cosmos.
Solar System The collection of nine planets and their moons in orbit around the sun, together with smaller bodies in the form of asteroids, meteoroids, and comets.
Heliocentric Having or representing the sun as the center, as in the accepted astronomical model of the solar system.
Geocentric Having or representing the earth as the center, as in former astronomical systems.
Created by: Sushi Dude on 2009-06-14



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