Test Android StudyStack App
Please help StudyStack get a grant! Vote here.
or...
Reset Password Free Sign Up

Free flashcards for serious fun studying. Create your own or use sets shared by other students and teachers.


incorrect cards (0)
correct cards (0)
remaining cards (0)
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the Correct box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the Incorrect box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

Correct box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards



Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

WGU Ethics Mod. 5

WGU Ethics terms

QuestionAnswer
It suggests that an action will initiate a chain of events culminating in some significant impact. Slippery slope defense
What is a philosophical doctrine that says all knowledge is derived from our senses. Empiricism
what British thinker refuted the concept of "innate ideas" and insisted that all human knowledge was of empiric origin. John Locke (1632-1704)
Other leading empiricists are _______ and _______. David Hume (1711-1776), George Berkeley (1685-1753)
What is denied that any knowledge we have is innate to being human. Empiricism
Who believed that knowledge of the world is limited because our senses and reason were limited. Empiricists
We are blank slates who only get knowledge through our senses of the world. This is considered what? Empiricism
Whose moral behavior is based on pleasure (good) and pain (evil). We decide morality by our senses. Humans are not born with innate knowledge. The Empiricists
Who argued that we can know divine law through reason or revelation. John Locke
Who believed in God and the afterlife and that the pleasure or the rewards of the afterlife would balance any injustices on Earth. John Locke
Whose key insights on Ethics: Morality must be demonstrable (provable). John Locke
Whose key insights on Ethics: It is based on pleasure or pain. John Locke
Whose key insights on Ethics: Moral good and evil represent the conformity or disagreement of our voluntary actions to law. John Locke
Whose key insights on Ethics: Three kinds of law: law of opinion (happiness); civic law (virtue); divine law (law of moral rectitude/righteousness). We can know divine law through reason or revelation. John Locke
Who placed more emphasis on feelings than most previous philosophers arguing that moral assessments are emotional reactions. David Hume
Who believed that no action--one of goodness or one of vice--contains the essence of goodness or vice. David Hume
Who brings empiricism to its purest form. Impressions are necessary to ideas. All ideas are associated with each other. David Hume
Who believes our thinking cannot extend beyond our immediate senses. David Hume
Whose key insights on Ethics: Moral judgments are formed through feelings more than reason. David Hume
Whose key insights on Ethics: Virtue and vice exist through our feelings, not in the actions themselves. David Hume
What is the ethical theory constructed around the reasoning that the greatest good for the greatest number is the only criterion for creating morality. Utilitarianism
Critics of ______________ argue it wrongly elevates pleasure above other values; it ignores distributive justice Utilitarianism
Critics of ______________ argue it wrongly assumes that ends justify the means, allowing for immoral actions (the means) in order to achieve the Greatest Good. Utilitarianism
Ethics based on acting in whatever way results in the best consequences. Is called? Consequentialist moral philosophy
What philosophical approach that says morality should be judged by outcomes. Consequentialism
Who is a big proponent of utilitarianism? Jeremy Bentham
Who was a British philosopher(1748-1832) largely responsible for Utilitarianism and social reformer. Jeremy Bentham
Whose ethics brought him to the conclusion that government could not be ruled by the aristocracy. Jeremy Bentham
Who believed in the rights of animals because they could feel pain Jeremy Bentham
Who was opposed to the British legal system, especially for the power held by judges. Jeremy Bentham
Who strongly opposed capital punishment. Jeremy Bentham
Who believed that legal punishment should be adapted to fit the crime. Jeremy Bentham
Who did not believe that sexual behavior should be legislated as long as it caused no harm to others. Jeremy Bentham
Who did not believe that euthanasia was morally correct. Jeremy Bentham
Who was founded on establishing morality through a calculus of happiness: that which, "takes into account the intensity, duration, likelihood, extent, etc. of pleasures and pains." Bentham's Utilitarianism
A measurement of the utility and potential happiness of given actions. Hedonic Calculus
Whose Hedonic Calculus tried to establish utilitarian standards. Bentham
How powerful pain or pleasure is. What kind of Hedonic Calculus? Intensity
How long pain or pleasure lasts. What kind of Hedonic Calculus? Duration
How likely pain or pleasure is to result. What kind of Hedonic Calculus? Certainty
How likely pain or pleasure will repeat. What kind of Hedonic Calculus? Fecundity
How pure (unmixed) the pain or pleasure is. What kind of Hedonic Calculus? Purity
How many people pain or pleasure affects.What kind of Hedonic Calculus? Extent
Who was trained at the knee in Bentham's ethics. Big proponent of utilitarianism. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
Who rated the kinds of happiness open to humankind. John Stuart Mill
Whose thinking moved past the idea of quantity of happiness to the quality of happiness. John Stuart Mill
Who differentiated between the inferior happiness we achieve through our senses, to the superior pleasures of the intellect (appreciation of art, music and so on). John Stuart Mill
Which British philosopher largely responsible for Social Contract Theory. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
Whose famous treatise is Leviathan. Thomas Hobbes
Who took a mechanistic view of humankind. Thomas Hobbes
Who describes people “the state of nature,” which is the condition of people before there was any state or civil society. . In this state all humans are equal and equally have the right to whatever they consider necessary for their survival. Thomas Hobbes
What is based on the idea of people giving up some of their natural rights to a government in exchanged for social order. Social contract theory
What is based on the reasoning that its rules are what "rational people will accept on the condition that others accept them as well. Social contract theory
What removed morality from formal religion. Social contract theory
Under this, rulers serve by the consent of the governed. Social contract theory
This is based on the idea of reciprocity. Social contract theory
Unlike other moral theories this doesn't address humankind's virtues or its better angels. Social contract theory
This does not aspire to elevate moral behavior in the way other theories have. Social contract theory
Is this a Strength or Weakness of the Social Contract: Constructs moral rules for harmonious living. Strength
Is this a Strength or Weakness of the Social Contract: Constructs moral rules that are in our best interests to follow Strength
Is this a Strength or Weakness of the Social Contract: Rational people will not create rules that are too difficult or impossible to live by. Strength
Is this a Strength or Weakness of the Social Contract: Allows people to live together in a moral world of limited altruism (unselfishness). Strength
Is this a Strength or Weakness of the Social Contract: No clear or consistent definition of what is a moral rule or law. Weakness
Is this a Strength or Weakness of the Social Contract: Does not resolve the question as to how much are we bound by laws of society. Weakness
Is this a Strength or Weakness of the Social Contract: Does not address moral claims of those outside the social contract (for example, infants, mentally impaired people, animals). Weakness
Objection or Reasoning for Utilitarianism: Utilitarianism wrongly(erroneously) elevates pleasure above other values. Objection
Objection or Reasoning for Utilitarianism: Utilitarianism ignores distributive justice. Objection
Objection or Reasoning for Utilitarianism: Utilitarianism wrongly assumes that ends justify the means. Objection
Objection or Reasoning for Utilitarianism: Utilitarianism requires too much calculation. Objection
Objection or Reasoning for Utilitarianism: Maximizing pleasure should not be the overriding value in human existence. Reasoning
Objection or Reasoning for Utilitarianism: Utilitarianism doesn't necessarily distribute happiness to those who "deserve" to be happy, or to all in a society. Reasoning
Objection or Reasoning for Utilitarianism: Utilitarianism would allow for immoral actions (the means) in order to achieve the Greatest Good. Reasoning
Objection or Reasoning for Utilitarianism: It is impractical to calculate the utility of every option and outcome as Utilitarianism would require. Reasoning
Created by: ldepaepe on 2009-06-09



bad sites Copyright ©2001-2014  StudyStack LLC   All rights reserved.