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CNS - final -PCC

CNS final

The superior colliculi deals with what reflexes? Visual
The inferior colliculi deals with what reflexes? Auditory
Both colliculi use what tract to carry out their reflexes? Tectospinal
Which cranial nerve inervates the iris? CN III - occulomotor
CN III travels through what nucleus of the midbrain which contributes to its parasympathetic function? Edinger - Westphals
Reticular formation of midbrain is located around what? Red nucleus
The red nucleus is divided into an inferior large area called ____ and a highly vascularized superior area called ____ 1.magnocellular 2. paryocellular
Red nucleus receives it's information from where? 1. The deep cerebellar nuclei except fastigial 2. Cerebral cortex
Function of red nucleus Contralatteral motor responses in posture and flexor musculature
Lacated between tegmentum and crus Substantia nigra
What gives the substantia nigra it's black appearance? Present only in what? 1. Dopamine 2. Mamals
Parkinsons is associated with drop in ____ in the ____. 1. Dopamine 2. Substantia nigra
Ventrolateral aspect of cerebral peduncles composed of descending tracts Crus Cerebri
Descending tracts in crus cerebri (4) 1. Corticospinal 2. Corticopontine 3. COrticobulbar 4. Corticomesencephalon
Where do corticomesencephalon fibers terminate? CN nuclei III and IV to initiate voluntary movement of the eye
Pineal tumors account for what percent of brain tumors? 1%
Pineal gland is built like a what? Is it fenestrated? What does it secrete? 1. Endocrine gland 2. Yes 3. Melatomin, seretonin, norepinephrine
5 major subdivisions of prosencephalon 1. Third ventricle 2. Epithalamus 3. Thalamus 4. Hypothalamus 5. Subthalamus
Epithalamus is located where? Superior to midbrain tectum
What 2 structures does the epithalamus contain? 1. Pineal Gland 2. Posterior commisure
Another name for the pineal gland Epiphysis cerebri
What does the pineal gland do with age? WHat is this called? It calcifies and it is called brain sand
The roof of the midbrain is called what? Tectum
Cerebral peduncles contain 3 things 1. Tegmentum 2. Substantia nigra 3. Crus cerebri
Smalles cranial nerve that originates from midbrain Trochlear (IV)
4 unique characteristics of cranial nerve IV 1. Smallest 2. Nearest to dorsal midline in origin 3. Crosses over on its way out 4. Runs longest distance in cranial vault
Apparent origin of CN III is where? Actual origin? Ventral from interpeduncular fossa. Periaqueductual gray matter
The ___ is the most significant relay center for sensory input to the cerebrum. All sensation except what? 1. Diencephalon 2. Olfaction
The tectum is ___ to the aquaduct of Sylvius? Posterior
Tectum is made of a quadrigeminal plate made up of 4 what? Collicular bodies ( supperior and inferior collicular pair)
Gray matter surrounding the aquaduct of sylvius contains nuclei for which two CNs? III and IV Endorphins and enkephalins
Cerebral peduncles are ___ to cerebral aquaduct? Ventral
Posterior commissure is responsible for what reflexes? Pupillary light reflexes
The subcommissural organ produces what? Aldosterone
Largest nuclei in the CNS? Thalamus
Included with the thalamus are two bodies? These are classified seperately as the what? 1. Lateral and medial geniculate bodies 2. Metathalamus
Thalamus mean what? It is a single structure composed of 2 large gray masses. These are joined together by the ____ (or ____) 1.Couch 2. Massa Intermedia 3. Interthalamic Adhesion
The thalamus forms the lateral wall of what? Third ventricle
Lateral to each thalamic mass is what? Posterior limb of the internal capsule
ALl sensory input to the cerebral cortex except ____ is relayed or intergrated in the ___ 1. Olfaction 2. Thalamus
Thalamus, along with reticular formations helps to do what? (most important function) Helps focus attention of the cortex temporarily making areas more receptive than others... concentration!!
Some apreciation of ___ and ___ are interpreted at the thalamic levels. Something else is needed for complete integration what is it? 1. Pain and thermal 2. Higher centers (post central gyrus)
Myelinated fibers that runs through the substance of each thalamis mass which divide them into subdivisions Internal medullary lamina
VPL = ? Ventral Posterior Lateral nucleus
What does the MI mean and what does it do? 1. Massa Intermedia 2. Divides thalamus into left and right thalamic masses
Largest part of the thalamus found only in the highest primates? Pulvinar
The hypothalamus forms what? (walls) Floor and portions of lateral walls of 3rd ventricle
Does the hypothalamus work under it's own influence? No, influenced by others
The hypothalamus has vague control over what? 1. Hunger 2. Thirst 3. Sex
Hypothalamus controls physiocal aspects of what? Emotional expression
Which area of the hypothalamus controls sympathetic function? Posterior nuclei and mamalary bodies
Parasympathetic control of hypothalamus? 1. Increases digestive motility 2. Decreases heart rate 3. Constriction of pupils
Sympathetic control of hypothalamus? 1. Increases heart rate and vasocontriction 2. Decreases digestive motility 3. Pupil dialation 4. Piloerection 5. Sweat gland secretion
Endocrine control from hypothalamus? Directly? Indirectly? 1. Directly via neuron axons into posterior pituitary 2. Indirectly via neurohormones to control the release of anterior pituitary hormones
Nuclei associate with the anterior area of hypothalamus? 1. Supraoptic 2. Paraventricular 3. Suprachiasmatic 4. Anterior 5. Preoptic
These nuclei send axons down through the infundibular stalk via the supraopticohypophyseal tract Surpraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
Supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei terminate where? WHat 2 hormones do they release? 1. Posterior pituitary 2. Oxytocin and ADH
Nucelus responsible for circadian cycles? Which gland is it complexly connected to? 1. Suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) 2. Pineal Gland
Nuceli responsible for thermoregulation especially when the body heats up. Preoptic nuclei
Nuclei known for parasympathetic function Anterior nuclei
Nuclei associated with the intermediate area of hypothalamus 1. Dorsomedial nuclei 2. Ventromedial nuclei 3. Arcuate nuclei 4. Tuber cinereum
Nuclei that controls parasympathetics of the GI tract Dorsomedial nuclei
Nuclei responsible for satiety or fullness? Ventromedial nuclei
Nuclei that contributes to the tuberoinfundibular tract. Unlike other tracts that descend to the pituitary this group of axons does what? 1. Arcuate nuclei 2. Terminates and secrete their neurohormones into perivascular spaces of infundibular stalk
Term used to describe the underlying undulating bulge between infundibular stalk and mammilary bodies Tuber Cinereum
The posterior area of the hypothalamus includes what nuclei? 1. Mammilary bodies 2. Posterior nuclei
Nucleu important for short term memory Mammilary bodies
A nuclei that is a thermoregulator: especially as the body cools down, stimulating shivering. Posterior nuclei
The ___ area of the hypothalamus is knows for diverse sympathetic actions. Posterior
General name applied to tracts going from the hypothalamus to the stalk or pituitary gland Hypothalamohypophyseal tracts
WHich tract releases releasing factor hormones? Tuberuinfundibular tract
The posterior pituitary AKA what? Develops from what? 1. Pars nervosa 2. Neurohypophysis
The anterior pituitary, AKA ___, and the intermediate pituitary are made from what? 1. Adenohypophysis 2. Rathke's pouch
Where does the posterior pituitary receive its influence? It receives its influence directly from neurons that go down into it. Which neurons? 1. Paraventricular 2. Supraoptic 3. Tuberinfundibular tracts
WHere does the anterior pituitary receive its influence? Directly from the blood stream
Located just under the lateral ventral aspect of the thalamus? Subthalamus
3 nuclei associated with the subthalamus 1. Parvocellular region of red nucleus 2. SUperior portion of substantia nigra 3. Subthalamic nuclei (corpus luysi)
Subthalamis nuclei, AKA what? Is it part of pyramidal or extrapyramidal system? 1. Corpus Luysi 2. Extrapyramidal
Subthalamic nuclei sends and receives fibers to and from the ___ and the ___ form the telencephalon Globus and pallidus
Lesion of the subthalamis nuclei may cause what? Ballism or hemiballism
What is ballism or hemiballism? Forcefull flinging movements of shoulders and or hips
Right and left telencephalon is __ the same __ diffrent 1. Anatomically the same 2. Functionally diffrent
Cerebral cortex AKA what? Pallium
An underlying mass of white fibers in the telencephalon Centrum semiovale
Deep within the white matter are collections of neuron cell bodies called what? Basal ganglia
Largest lobe? Smallest lobe? 1. Frontal lobe 2. Occipital lobe
General function of telencephelon? 1. Final intergration of neural mechs 2. Initiation of voluntary mouvements 3. Memory and associative memory 4. Abstract thinking
Most abstract thinking is centered in the prefrontal region. Which areas in particular? 1. Brodmann areas 9-12 2. Parietal lobes
Total surface area of diencephelon. Two thirds of this area is found where? 1. 2.5 square feet 2. Down in the sulci
Thickness of the pallium? 1.5 to 4.5 mm
What is thicker: the gyrus cortex or the sulcus cortex? Gyrus cortex
The total number of neurons in the cerebral cortex 100 billion
The neocortex, AKA ___, occupies what percent of the cerebral cortex? 1. Isocortex 2. 90%
Two ancient parts that occupy 10 % of total cerebral cortex Allocortex
6 common laminae of the cerebral cortex (external to internal) 1. Molecular Lamina 1 2. External granular 2 3. External pyramidal lamina 3 4. Internal granular 4 5. Internal pyramidal 5 6. Multiform (fusiform) lamina 6
Lamina 1 Molecular or Plexiform
Lamina 2 External granular
Lamina 3 External pyramidal
Lamina 4 Internal granular
Lamina 5 Internal pyramidal
Lamina 6 Multiform or Fusiform
Lamina located in the centrum semiovale 6
Outer most lamina and nearest to the pia mater? Molecular lamina 1
Lamina 1 is filled with what? Synaptic activity
Small, closely packed granular neurons. Axons extend into deeper lamina of the same cortex area. Lamina 2 : external granular layer
Sometimes calles the intracortical association area. Lamina 2 : external granular layer
Lamina with small pyramidal shaped neuron cell bodies Lamina 3 : External pyramidal layer
In lamina III, axons extend out of the cortex to the ___ and then returns to gray matter of same hemisphere. White matter
Intercortical association layer Lamina III: external pyramidal layer
Two lamina called the associative lamina External granular and external pyramidal
Specific thalamic inputs arive here in this lamina Lamina IV: Internal granular layer
Lamina IV is well developed in ___ areas Sensory areas
Contains large pyramidal shaped neuron cell bodies even the giant betz cells Lamina V : Internal pyramidal layer
Axons project to other brain and cord centers (corticobulbar, corticospinal) Lamina V : Internal pyramidal layer
Layer that has quite a mixture of incoming and outgoing fibers Lamina 6 : Multiform layer
These 2 lamina are sometimes called the projection lamina 5 and 6
2 lamina where our great thinking capeabilities take place 2 and 3
What is alexia? Deficiency of reading ( number 39 lesion)
What is agraphia? Deficiency of writting ( number 39 lesion)
Area confined to the precentral gyrus of frontal lobe Area 4
No other area provides more fibers to the pyramidal system. It functions to initiate voluntary movements, epecially of the distal extermities, facial and oral musculature Brodmann area 4
Giant betz cells reside in this area only Area 4
The cortex of broadmann area 4 has well developed which laminas? 5 and 6
Intertwined along the complex post cental gyrus of the parietal lobe is what? Broadmann areas 1, 2 and 3
What is the function of area 1, 2 and 3? Somesthetic input. Pain, thermal, deep touch, light touch, vibratory and kinesthetic input
Areas 1, 2 and 3 have well developed efferents from ____ and ____. Three lamina are also well developed. 1. VPL and VPM 2. IV, V, VI
Since areas 1, 2 and 3 have a well developed lamina V and VI, it also contributes to what kind of fibers? Pyramidal fibers: voluntary motor initiation
Two areas located just in front of area 4 and are somtimes called the premotor regions Broadmann area 6 and 8
Area 6 is best known for what? Influence on the proximal portions of our extremities (4 is our distal portion of extremities)
Areas 6 and 8 are also motor intitiation centers. They also contribute fibers to what? Pyramidals
Brodmann area 8 does what? Initiates voluntary movement of the eyes
Area number 8 stimulates upper or lower motor neurons? Which CNs are effected? 1. Lower motor neurons 2. III, IV and VI
Areas 9, 10, 11 and 12 are responsible for what? 1. Thought elaboration 2. abstract reasoning 3. imagination 4. emotions
Which two lamina are well developped in areas 9, 10, 11 and we? II and III
Lamina II and III are called what? Associative cortex
Broca's speech area is which broadmann's area? 44
Afferent fibers stream into BrocaMs from these two lobes Parietal and temporal
Broadmann's area 44 directs neurons from which other area? Area 4 (works on face and oral musculature) Thse two areas work together to form speech
Loss of power to communicate through writting, speaking or signing. Aphasia
Lesions in Broca's area may result in a condition called what? Motor aphasia
Partial loss in the ability to communicate? Dysphasia
What side of the brain is speech dominant in? Left
The visual cortext constitutes which brodmann areas? Where is it located? 17, 18, 19, occipital lobe
Which area lies within the calcarine sulcus and is the primary visual cortex? Where does it receive its input? Area 17, lateral geniculate body
Area 17 had a white band running through lamina ___. Another name for area 17 is what? 1. IV 2. Striate cortex
Area 18 and 19 functions Memory storage for visual sensation
What may a lesion in broadmann's area 18 and 19 lead to? An inability to correlate present images with past experiences : prosopagnosia
Broadmann's area known for the primary auditory cortex. Where is it located? ... It's in the superior temporal gyrus in an area called what? 1. Area 41 2. Heschl'a area
An area that surrounds area 41 and extends nearly into the pareital lobe. It is known as wernicke's area. Broadmann area 22
Function of Wernicke's area 1. Formation of written word 2. Underlying structure of an utterance (also involves in hearing memory)
A leasion in Wernicke's area could result in a diffrent manifestation of what? Dysphasia
Broadmann's areas that synthesize memory and sensation into creative function such as reading, writting and language in general 5, 7, 39, 40
Areas 5, 7, 39 and 40 are found in what lobe? Parietal
Lesions in area 39 (angular gyrus) may result in what dysfunctions? 1. Alexia (reading) 2. Agraphia (writting)
Area thought ot be a gustatory center 43
Two brodmann areas assoicated with olfaction 34 and 28. Located in the uncus and parahippacampal gyrus respectively
Basal ganglia: Deep nuclei 1. Caudate nucleus 2. Putamen 3. Globus pallidus 4. Amygdaloid
Putamen and globus pallidus together are called what? Lenticular nucleus
The caudate and the putamen nuclei are located in the what? Neostriatum
Three nuclei in the corpus striatum 1. Caudate 2. Putamen 3. Globus Pallidus
Striatal lesions normally lead to what? Dyskinesia : muscle tone disturbances
Three examples of striatal lesions 1. Tremor 2. Chorea 3. Ballism
In huntington's chorea, the striatum begins to deteriorate and produces a deficiency of what neurotransmitter? GABA
Ballism, can be the result of lesions in the subthalamic nuclei as well as the what? Globus pallidus
Which 2 nuclei make up the neostriatum? Caudate and Putamen
Nuclei of the corpus striatum play a mojor role in regulating what? Movement
The caudate is continuous with which other nuclei by gray matter bridges? Putamen
Afferent fibers come into the caudate from where? 1. All lobes of the cortex 2. Thalamus 3. Substantia nigra 4. Putamen
Efferent fibers come out of the caudate to go where? 1. Putamen 2. Globus Pallidus 3. Substantia Nigra 4. Thalamus
Most lateral aspect of the corpus striatal nuclei Putamen nuclei
Afferents of putamen nuclei? Same as caudate, including caudate
The nigrostriatal arch, an afferent fiber of the putamen, contains what? Dopamine
Two nuclei that are dysfinctional in parkinsons disease? Putamen and Caudate
Efferents of putamen nuclei Same as caudate
Created by: LrB