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Mendelian Genetics and Modern Genetics

trait physical characteristics of an organism
heredity the passing of traits from parents to offspring
genetics scientific study of heredity
purebred (homozygous) produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent
gene factor that controls traits
allele different form of a gene
dominant allele trait that always shows up in the organism
recessive allele covered up when dominant allele is present
hybrid (heterozygous) two different alleles for the trait
probability likelihood that a particular event will occur
Punnett Square a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
phenotype visible traits
geneotype allele combinations
codominance alleles are neither dominant or recessive
multiple alleles three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
sex-linked gene alleles are passed from a parent to a child on a sex chromosome
carrier a person who has one recessive allele for a trait and one dominant allele
pedigree a chart or family tree that tracks family members
genetic disorder an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes
amniocentesis a procedure doctors use before birth to determine if the baby will have a disorder
karyotype picture of all the chromosomes in a cell
selective breeding the process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents
inbreeding crossing two individuals that have the same alleles
genetic engineering genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another organism
gene therapy inserts working copies of a gene directly into the cell of a person with a genetic disorder
genome all DNA in a cell of an organism
Created by: dianne12