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Micro Test notes 1


The study of what is too small to be seen with the naked eye Microbiology
100 B.C. first to suggest that microbes exist, and may cause disease Lucretius
1673 crude microscope 300x, "microbes are everywhere" Antony Vanleeuwenhoek
300 B.C. supported the concept of spontaneous generation, living things can develop from non living matter Aristotle
1668 First person to challenge the concept of spontaneous generation, observation of maggots on meat. Francesco Redi
living things can only arise from pre-existing living cells Biogenesis
1673 said "microbes must originate from spontaneous generation" Van Leeuwenhoek
1745 Challenged spontaneous generation for microbes, observation of beef broth that turned cloudy. John Needham
1765 Improved Needhams experiment, with a conclusion of biogenesis although people did not believe him Lazzaro Spallanzani
1861 Improved Spallanzani's experiment, creator of the swan neked flask, conclusion biogenesis Louis Pasteur
1860 First indirect evidence that microbes may cause disease, observation of post surgical disease Joseph Lister
1876 First direct evidence that microbes cause disease Robert Koch
Showed that the bacterium, bacillus anthraces, caused the disease anthrax Joseph Lister
A set of rules/criteria for establishing a link between a disease and specific microbe Koch's Postulates
1796 Creator of the first known vaccination, observation of milkmaids and smallpox Edward Jenner
1880 studied cholera in chickens, concluded exposure to some disease provided protection against the fresh and strong bacteria Pasteur and Chamberland
Coined the term vaccination in honor of jenner's work Louis Pasteur
1906 developed a drug to treat syphilis called "salvarsan" a derivative of arsenic Paul Ehrlich
1928 Studied staph and accidentally discovered penicillin Alexander Fleming
Most microbes are classified as either Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes
Before the kernel, lacks a true nucleus Prokaryotes
True kernel has a true nucleus Eukaryotes
Bacteria Prokaryotes and no true nucleus
Fungi, algae, and protozoans Eukaryotes and no true nucleus
Prokaryotic cell size 0.2-2.0 nm in diameter
Cell shape Coccus roughly spherical
Cell shape Bacillus rod shaped
Cell shape Spirilla rigid spirals
Cell shape Spirochetes flexible spirals
Cell shape Vibrio curved rod or bent
Cell shape Fusiform bacillus rod shaped with tapered ends
Cell shape Coccobacillus elongated spheres
cell arrangement Singles cell separate and do not remain attached
cell arrangement Pairs diplococcus
cell arrangement Chain streptococcus
cell arrangement Packets of 4 cells tetrods
cell arrangement Packets of 8,16, 32 cells in cubes sarcinae
cell arrangement Random Clusters Staphylococcus
cell arrangement Step like arrangement palisades
colony characteristics are determined by cell shape
Present in all prokaryotic cells that separates interior of the cells from exterior of the cells plasma membrane
2 basic components to plasma membrane phospholipid bilayer, and proteins associated with bilayer
Phospholipid head polar/hydrophilic
Fatty acid tails non polar/hydrophobic
Functions of Plasma Membrane site of metabolic reactions such as cellular resppiration,sence/gather information, and selectively permeable membrane
Passive Diffusion movement from higher concentration (no energy required) to lower concentration, rate depends on concentration gradient.
Facilitated Diffusion movement from higher concentration to lower concentration
Active transport Movement from lower to higher concentration
An additional layer outside/exterior to the plasma membrane cell wall
Cell wall Functions are for protection, determines and maintains cell shape
Composed of many layers thick layers of peptidoglycan anchored by teichoic acid Gram +
Composed of a relatively thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane Gram -
Cells are less permeable more difficult for PCN to enter Gram -
sugar shell, an additional layer outside/exterior to the cell wall not present in all prokaryotes, allows cell to attach/adhere to solid surfaces, protects cell from drying out, prevents cells from being engulfed by the immune system. Mostly polysacs glycocalyx
Types of glycocalyx Capsule= relatively thick, well organized and firmly attached to cell wall, with capsule comes disease. Slime layer= thin,not well organized and loosely attached to cell wall, typically attach to teeth.
Relatively short hair like extensions from the cell surface composed of a protein called pilin Pili and Fimbriae
Pili longer than fimbriae but less numerous
Fimbrae shorter than pili, but more numerous
Relatively long hair like extensions from cell surface, usually many times the cell length Flagella used for motility
Flagella Basal body, hook, and filament
Motion of prokaryotic flagellum is by rotation
Counterclockwise rotation of flagellum propels cell forward "Run"
Clockwise rotation of flagellum causes cell to stop or "tumble"
Average speed of flagellum 2-10 body lengths per second
Flagellar arrangements Monotrichous one flagellum
Flagellar arrangements Amphitrichous one or more flagellum at both ends
Flagellar arrangements Lophotrichous two or more flagella at one end
Flagellar arrangement Peritrichous Many flagella all around
A mini dormant version of the cell, very resistant to harsh environments Endospore
Fluid inside the cell composed primarily of water and also contains proteins, carbs, nucleic acid, salts, vitamins etc. Cytoplasm
A structure composed of DNA usually a single circular DNA molecule that may contain up to 3500 genes, stores genetic info. Nucleoid
Usually a small circular fragment of DNA containing 5-100 genes, instructions for protein synthesis. Plasmids
Use information in nucleoid or plasmid to synthesize proteins. 2 locations free floating in the cytoplasm and associated in the plasma membrane. Ribosomes
Aid the creation of proteins of fully functional proteins. Help fold or add necessary side groups to newly synthesized proteins. Molecular Chaperons
Highly compacted aggregates diverse materials such as proteins glycogen, iron, phosphorus. Funtio is storage. Granules or Inclusion Bodies
General differences from Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes size, true nucleus, membrane buond organelles, complexity
composed of polysaccharides such as chitin, cellulose, glucan Fungal Wall
Primarily composed of polyssaccharides such as cellulose, pectin Algal Wall
usually lack a true exterior cell wall but may have a pellicle= composed of overlapping protein strips just inside the plasma membrane Protozoan Wall
Types of Bulk transport Exocytosis and Endocytosis
Bulk movement out of the cell Exocytosis
Bulk movement into the cell. Solid materials=Phagocytosis, and liquids=pinocytosis Endocytosis
Double-membrane, contains DNA of the cell usually linear molecules of DNA at least 3x the amount in prokaryotic cells Nucleus
Use information from DNA to synthesize proteins, free floating in the cytoplasm used to create proteins inside the cell Ribosome
an irregular network of membrane bound tubules and flattened sacs, used in packaging and distribution. Endoplasmic Reticulum
Has ribosomes associated which packages proteins into membrane bound vesicles for distribution in the cell Rough E.R.
Contains enzymes involved in the creation and degradation of lipids. Packages lipids in membrane bound vesicle for distribution in the cell Smooth E.R.
Composed of flattened sacs called cisterne, receives vesicles from the E.R. modifies the contents into membrane bound vesicles for distribution Golgi Apparatus
Membrane bound vesicles that may contain proteins, carbs, iron, water with dissolved salts. Function is storage. Vacuole
Ways to create Vacuoles Protein synthesis, and Endocytosis
Membrane bound vesicle contains digestive enzymes. Lysosome
"Power house of the cell", generation of ATP through cellular respiration Mitochondria
Use energy from light to create ATP through photosynthesis. Chloroplast
Fiber Types Microfilaments, Intermidiate filaments, and Microtubules
Smallest fibers composed of granular protein subunits called Actin. Function maintain cell shape and create motility by pseudopodia Microfilaments
Composed of fibrous twisted proteins (e.g. keratin) rope-like Intermidiate Filaments
Composed of globular protein subunits called tubulin which create hollow tubelike structure, intracellular movement of oraganelles "tracks", attachment site for DNA during cell division/replication, main structural component in cilia and flagella Microtubules
Function of motility. Hairlike extesions from cell surface both of these contain microtubules. Movement by undulation Cilia and Flagella
Shorter than Flagella, but very numerous usually all over cell surface. (20nm) Cilia
Longer than cilia, but less numerous usually one to a few at one end of the cell. (100-200nm) Flagella
An increase in cell components leads to and increase in cell size which leads to increase in cell number. Growth
Microbial Growth in Eukaryotes Mitosis
Microbial Groth in Prokaryotes Binary Fission
Steps in Binary Fission 1)Cell creates new cell structures.2)Copies DNA which moves to opposite ends of cell.3)Cell creates new plaska membrane & creates 2 daughter cells.4)Daughter cells may separate from one another or remain attached
Time required to complete one round of Binary Fission Generation time (Doubling Time)
Batch Culture Pattern 1)Lag phase.2)Exponential Phase.3)Sationary Phase.4)Death Phase
First portion of the growth curve.Always has this phase, Cells adjust to environment, cells build new cell components,cells are reparing damage caused during cell transfer Lag Phase
Period of growth with maximum rate of cell number. Cells are most uniform during this phase, best use for experiments/study Exponential Phase
Period of growth with no significant change, nutrients become limited, space becomes limited, waste begins to accumulate.Endospores would be created during this phase. #of cell deaths is = to cell division. Stationary Phase
Final portion of the growth phase, complete lack/depletion of nutrients, waste products become toxic to cells Death Phase
Created by: Hector1006