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Science Vocab Review

Review for end-of-year vocab test

Observation Recognizing something by using your senses (sight, smell, touch, etc.)
Analysis This step of the scientific method occurs when scientists write down data from an experiment.
Hypothesis A step of the scientific method which is a tentative assumption or prediction that one can test.
Experiment A test or trial carried out under controlled conditions in order to answer a scientific question
Theory A general principle that has been well tested, offered to try to explain a phenomena
Law A statement which has been proven by scientists that explain scientific phenomena
Prediction To declare or indicate in advance on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reason
Metric System The measuring system most widely used by scientists today
Meter Metric standard for the measurement of length
Length The distance between two points
Gram Metric standard for the measurement of mass
Mass How much matter an object contains
Liter Metric standard for the measurement of volume
Watt Unit of power
Time The interval between two events
Celsius Metric standard for the measurement of temperature
Newton Metric standard for the measurement of weight
Weight The measure of the force of gravity
Temperature The measure of average kinetic energy
Volume How much space an object occupies
Density The measure of how close together or far apart molecules are in a sample of matter
Newton’s 3rd Law Every action has an equal and opposite reaction
Law of conservation of energy The rule that energy cannot be created or destroyed
Plasma The fourth state of matter containing so much energy that the electrons are stripped from their energy levels
Liquid State of matter which exhibits constant volume but not constant shape
Solid State of matter which exhibits constant volume and constant shape
Gas A substance that has no definite shape or definite volume
Inertia The tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion
Balanced Force Equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions
Unbalanced Force Force exerted on an object that causes it to move
Buoyancy The upward force exerted by a fluid on a submerged object
Friction The force that a surface exerts onto another surface when they are rubbed together
Kinetic Energy Energy that is in motion
Potential Energy Energy that is stored and held in readiness
Acceleration Speed in a given direction
Net force The overall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on the object are added together
Gravity The force that pulls all objects together
Gravity Force of attraction between all objects that have mass
Acid A substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals, turns blue litmus paper red, and is 0 – 6 on a pH scale
Base A substance that tastes bitter, feels slippery, turns red litmus paper blue, and is 8 – 14 on a pH scale
Periodic Table of Elements An organized chart of the known substances found in the universe
Atomic Number On the periodic table, this refers to the number of protons an atom has in the nucleus
Atomic Mass On the periodic table, this refers to the weighted average of the atom’s isotope masses
Indicators These help scientists determine if a substance is an acid or a base
Neutron The small particles in an element with no charge
Electron The negatively charged particle in an element
Element A substance that can’t be broken down into any other substance
Product Substances that exist after a chemical reaction takes place
Reactants Substances that exist before a chemical reaction takes place
Valence electrons The outermost electrons in an atom
Neutralization This is the reaction between an acid and a base
Proton Positively charged particles in an element
Mixture Two or more substances physically combined together
Nucleus The central part of the smallest particle of an element
Isotopes An atom or a group of atoms that either have a positive or negative charge
Solvent This is the part of the solution that dissolves the smaller particles in a solution
Solute These are the dissolved particles in a solution
Covalent Bond A chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons
Ionic Bond A chemical bond formed from atoms of opposite charges
Simple Machine An object which helps you do work by changing the amount or direction of the force you need to apply
Screw An inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder
Pulley A grooved wheel with a rope that helps lower or raise things
Inclined Plane A flat, slanted surface used to help lifting or lowering things
Lever A rigid object that pivots about a fixed point
Wedge A device which is thick at one end and thin at the other end and it helps to reduce work
Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Survival of the Fittest The theory that the strongest organisms live and the weaker ones die
Forensics The process of using scientific evidence to help solve crimes
Genotype This represents the genetic code (examples – BB, Bb, bb) received from your parents for a trait
Phenotype This represents the physical traits (examples – brown hair, blue eyes) received from your parents for a trait that can be seen
Hybrid When an organism has both a dominant and recessive gene code for a trait (Example – Tt)
Genes Factors which determine the traits you inherit from your parents
Gregor Mendel This scientist is known as the “Father of Genetics”
Dmitri Mendeleev This scientist came up with a way to organize chemical elements
Albert Einstein This scientist came up with the theory of relativity
Archimedes This scientist is known for his work with fluid displacement
Isaac Newton This scientist came up with theories on motion and gravity
Galileo Galilei This scientist came up with many theories about the organization of the universe
Antoine Lavoisier This scientist studied how materials react with each other
Radiation The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
Voltage Potential difference; “the push” which gets electricity flowing
Amperage The amount of flow of electrical current through material
Heat Thermal energy that is transferred from one substance to another
Convection The transfer of heat by the movement of currents within a gas or liquid
Conduction The transfer of heat between particles within a substance
Momentum The product of an object’s mass and velocity
Resistance The opposition to the movement of electrical charges flowing through material
Created by: epenrod.clm