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HELUS: Muskuloskelat

HELUS: Grade 7, Life Science: Ch.9: The Muskuloskeletal System

The hard, supportive structure in our bodies is the ___ system skeletal
The human body has over 200 ___ made of cells, collagen, and calcium bones
The skeletal system provides ___, protection, and movement for the body support
___ vessels and nerves enter and leave through holes in bones. Blood
The skull, ___, and ribs protect the brain, spinal cord, and heart and lungs,respectively. vertebrae
The skeletal system provides attachment points for ___, which allow movement muscles
The ___ in the middle of some bones is where blood cells are formed. marrow
Bones connect at ___ joints
___, which hold bones together at joints, are flexible because they have less calcium Ligaments
___, found in ears and noses, is a flexible elastic tissue made of collagen. Cartilage
___ joints, found in fingers, elbows, and knees, allow back-and-forth movement Hinge
The thumb, the only ___ joint in the body, allows a wider range of motion saddle
___-___-___ joints, such as in shoulders and hips, can rotate and move in every direction. Ball-and-socket
An ___ joint, such as in knuckles, is similar to a ball-and-socket but cannot move in as many directions ellipsoid
In a ___ joint, the cylindrical region of one bone fits into a ring-shaped structure ofanother joint. pivot
The joint between the first two neck ___ is a pivot joint. vertebrae
Two bones that connect at flat surfaces form a ___ joint, such as in ankles and wrists. gliding
An ___ joint holds two bones firmly together, allowing little or no movement. immovable
The ___ contains immovable joints. skull
The ___ system allows the body to move. muscular
Muscle tissue is made of bundles of long muscle cells called muscle ___. fibers
Muscle fibers contain bundles of tubes that contain muscle ___. filaments
When a muscle ___, the muscle filaments move closer to each other and the muscle shortens contracts
When a muscle ___, the muscle filaments move away from each other. relaxes
Muscles contract when they receive chemical signals from the ___ system nervous
Muscle cells contain more ___ than other cells to produce ___ needed forcontraction. mitochondria, energy
Muscles have a large network of ___ vessels that supplies them with oxygen for cellular ___. blood, respiration
Muscles can be either voluntary or ___. involuntary
A voluntary muscle, such as those in hands, arms, and legs, is one you can ___. control
An involuntary muscle, such as the heart or ___, works without you having to thinkabout it. stomach
Muscle cells form three types of muscle ___ in the human body. tissue
___ muscle tissue causes movement. Skeletal
Cardiac muscle tissue is found only in the ___. heart
___ muscle tissue, found in internal organs such as your stomach and blood vessels, ___ contracts and relaxes. Smooth, slowly
The muscular system must interact with the skeletal system to produce ___. movement
___ connect bones to muscles and do not stretch as much as ligaments. Tendons
Tendons, ligaments, and cartilage are all ___ tissue. connective
The body moves through ___ and extension. flexion
In flexion, the bending of a limb ___ the angle between the bones of the limb. decreases
In ___, the limb straightens and increases the angle between bones of the limb. extension
The ___ system works to move the body. musculoskeletal
A ___ is a simple machine made of anything rigid that pivots around a fixed point. lever
The ___ is the fixed point around which a lever pivots. fulcrum
The ancient Greek mathematician ___ (287-212 B.C.) first described levers. Archimedes
Three ___ of levers are determined by location of the fulcrum, load, and applied force. classes
___ force is the force needed to move an object over a distance. Effort
___ force is the force that opposes the effort force. Resistance
The ___ the effort force is to the fulcrum, the more effort force it will take to use the lever. closer
The closer the resistance force is to the fulcrum, the ___ resistance force it will take. less
In a ___-___ lever, the resistance force and the effort force are on opposite sides of the fulcrum. A ___-___, pliers, and scissors are examples of these. first-class, see-saw
In a second-class lever, the ___ force is between the fulcrum and the effort force. ___ ___ are examples of these. resistance, Wheel barrows
In a third-class lever, the effort force is between the resistance force and the ___. ___ ___, shovels, and rakes are examples of these. fulcrum, Baseball bats
Although ___-___ levers require more effort force, they are the most common levers in the body. third-class
First- and second-class levers could perform the same task using ___ force. less
___-___ levers make a much better arrangement for muscle attachment. Third-class
In biceps, a ___-___ lever would require a counter-balance if the pivot point was theelbow. first-class
In biceps, a second-class lever would require that muscles attach at the ___ if the pivot point was the elbow. fingers
___ are used to lift heavy objects or to move objects faster and farther. Levers
___ ___ is the ability of a machine to increase the amount of force put into the machine. Mechanical advantage
Mathematically, mechanical advantage (MA) is the ___ of the resistance force (FR) to theeffort force (FE). ratio
First- and second-class levers, such as see-saws and car jacks, make it easier to ___ heavy objects. lift
Third-class levers, such as baseball bats, make it easier to move objects ___ and faster. farther
Arrangements of muscles and bones in your body function in the same way as mechanical___. levers
In our bodies, multiple bones and joints act as levers and fulcrums, and muscles provide___. force
___ in your legs and arms allow you to move farther and faster. Levers
The ___ of levers in the body affects body strength. length
In activities such as arm wrestling or gymnastics, ___ men and women have a natural advantage because the effort force and resistance force are closer together. shorter
Created by: jnosik