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Chap 15-2/3

Chemical Compounds

An acid is any compound that increases the number of what when dissolved in water? Hydronium ions H3O+
What is a property of an acid involving taste? One property of acids is a sour taste
Can acids cause some substances to change color? Yes
How do hydronium ions form? When a hydrogen ion, H+, separates from the acid and bonds with a water molecule, H2O, to form a hydronium ion, H3O+
The taste of lemons, limes, and other citrus fruits is a result of what? Citric acid
How should you never identify an unknown chemical or a concentrated solution of a strong acid? By taste, touch, or smell
What is corrosive? That they destroy body tissue, clothing, and many other things
Are many acids corrosive? Yes
Are most acids are also poisonous? Yes
What is an indicator? A substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or base
A kind of indicator that can be used in what? Bromthymol blue, an indicator, and water
What color does the indicator change when an acid is present? The color changes from pale blue to yellow because the indicator detects the presence of an acid
When acids react with some metals, what does it produce? Hydrogen gas
An example of acids reacting to metals is when hydrochloric acid reacts with zinc metal to produce hydrogen gas, what is the equation for the reaction? 2HCl + Zn → H2 + ZnCl2
In an reaction, how does zinc displaces hydrogen in the compound? Hydrochloric acid
What is the reason for the displacement of zinc? This displacement happens because zinc is an active metal
What would happen if silver were put into hydrochloric acid? Why? Nothing would happen because silver is not an active metal, so no reaction would take place
When acids are dissolved in water what do they do? They break apart and form ions in the solution
What do ions in acids make a solution possible for? An electric current
What is an example of how an acid can be used to produce an electric current? How? A car battery is one example because the sulfuric acid in the battery conducts electricity to help start the car’s engine
What forms when zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid? Bubbles of hydrogen gas
Acids are used in many areas of what? Industry and in homes
What is the most widely made industrial chemical in the world? Sulfuric acid
What kind of products use sulfuric acid? Paper, paint, detergents, and fertilizers
What kind of products use nitric acid? Fertilizers, rubber, and plastics
Hydrochloric acid is used to make what? How? Metals from their ores by separating the metals from the materials with which they are combined; it is also used in swimming pools to help keep them free of algae, and is even found in your stomach, where it aids in digestion.
Hydrofluoric acid is used to do what? Etch glass
What is found in orange juice? Citric acid and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
What gives a sharp taste to soft drinks? Carbonic acid and phosphoric acid
A base is any compound that increases the number of what? Hydroxide ions, OH–, when dissolved in water
Sodium hydroxide breaks apart to form what? Sodium ions and hydroxide ions
What is the equation to the reaction when sodium hydroxide breaks apart to form sodium ions and hydroxide ions? NaOH → Na+ + OH–
Hydroxide ions give bases? Their properties
What are four examples of bases? Soap, bleach, detergent, and baking soda
What is a property of a base involving taste? Bitter taste
Are many bases are corrosive? Yes
The indicator, bromthymol blue, turns what color when a base is added to it? Blue
Do solutions of bases conduct electricity? Why? Solutions of bases conduct an electric current because bases increase the number of hydroxide ions, OH–, in a solution
What is a hydroxide ion? What gives it it's negative charge? A hydroxide ion is actually a hydrogen atom and an oxygen atom bonded together; the extra electron gives the hydroxide ion a negative charge
Sodium hydroxide is a base used to make what? Soap and paper
What can it also be used in? Oven cleaners and in products that unclog drains
Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, is used to make what? Cement and plaster
Ammonia is found in many what? Household cleaners and is used to make fertilizers
Magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide are used in what? Antacids to treat heartburn
Bases can be used as what? Cleaning agents, as cooking aids, and as medicines
The concentration of an acid or a base is what? The amount of acid or base dissolved in water
The strength of an acid or a base depends on what? The number of molecules that break apart when the acid or base is dissolved in water
If all of the molecules of an acid break apart, what is it called? Strong acid
If only a few molecules of an acid break apart what is it called? Weak acid
A reaction between acids and bases is a what? Neutralization
Acids and bases neutralize one another because why? The hydrogen ions (H+), which are present in an acid, and the hydroxide ions (OH–), which are present in a base, react to form water, H2O, which is neutral
The pH of a solution is a measured how? The hydronium ion concentration in the solution
What is an ionic compound formed from the positive ion of a base and the negative ion of an acid Salt
Created by: Eun Sil